NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture 2020-12-28T15:26:49+07:00 Pinai Sirikiatikul Open Journal Systems <h3><strong>NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture&nbsp;</strong></h3> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture</em></strong> is a blind peer-reviewed journal devoted to the promotion and study of all aspects of the history of architecture, architectural conservation in Thailand and neighbouring countries, and the development of Thai architecture both as a scholarly discipline and practice. Founded in 2004, <em>NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture</em> is the only periodical in Thailand committed primarily to the subjects. Since 2019, the Journal publishes twice a year by Faculty of Architecture, Silpakorn University.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<em>NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture</em> is abstracted and indexed in the ACI Index and TCI Index. Papers from all volumes are available on the <strong>ThaiJO</strong> website:&nbsp;<a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN 1686-1841&nbsp;(Print) </strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN 2697-3901&nbsp;(Online) </strong></p> สารบัญ | TABLE OF CONTENT 2020-12-25T11:40:09+07:00 Najua <p>--</p> 2020-12-23T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Green Building Design and Major Renovation Guidelines for Government Offices 2020-12-25T11:40:09+07:00 Pantuda Puthipiroj Patrapron Sreeparsert Muhammad Munit Phimpraphan and others <p>The Department of Public Works and Town &amp; Country Planning (DPT) has determined to increase the role of the government sector to mitigate climate change problems and environmental systems, where buildings contribute partially to these problems. DPT, therefore, aims to establish green government office design guidelines for new construction as well as major renovation. The study method was done via reviewing green building rating systems in Thailand and other countries, establishing a green building rating tool, testing the tool with selected buildings and calculating the cost increase in addition to value for money. Two buildings were selected as case studies, one was a new building with classical Thai style, and the other an existing office, where both were considered extra large buildings according to the building construction code.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;To observe design issues that needed correction in order to pass the green building criteria, a post-occupancy survey was conducted in the existing office. It was found that the Thai classical style building was able to pass the prerequisites as well as any other contemporary style building. However, its high-sloped roof hinders some criteria from being achieved such as the installation of solar ready roofs, the collection of rainwater from roofs, and the reduction of urban heat island effect from the roof.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Modification of the ventilation system was required by both the new and existing building in order to meet the minimum ventilation rate criteria. The Thai classical style building especially needs to have an appropriately placed intake and exhaust air grills on the exterior wall or roof for both mechanical and aesthetic concerns.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The new building design is made of 72 criteria, 32 prerequisites and 40 option credits, with contents concerning site selection, project administration, master planning, building design, construction, operation and maintenance. On the other hand, the major renovation includes 26 criteria and 42 credits. All prerequisites must be met in order for the building to be considered as a DPT green government office building, if the building can also achieve more than half of the total option credits, it will be considered as a DPT high-level green office building.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The cost increase to establish a new green building was about 2 % and 4% to adapt an existing building. For the high-level green building, the increase was about 8% for the new building, and 7% for major renovation. However, it is worth mentioning that the standard green building has better value for money than the high-level green building. DPT has made all design criteria for both new construction and major renovation available as e-books through their website.</p> 2020-09-16T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture Aesthetics Approach in Frei Otto’s Works 2020-12-25T11:40:12+07:00 Sippawich Kambung Tonkao Panin <p>Frei Otto was a well-known German architect of the twentieth century whose works focused on the design of lightweight structures with exciting forms. &nbsp;During his career, he was the pioneer of lightweight structure research and design and the developer of design methods, as well as publishing numerous studies for lightweight structure experiments and research by the Institute of Light Structure Design, University Stuttgart. This research explores aesthetics concepts extracted from Otto's writings and other media such as narration and his interviews. It aims to reveal concepts, philosophies, or aesthetic beliefs for his architectural design, often overshadowed by technical, construction, and engineering issues. The research shows the relationship between Otto's idea and those of the great German philosophers, Baumgarten, Kant and Hegel. The result found is that although Otto's aesthetics concept is inclined to ethics, it lends itself well to aesthetics approach and design philosophy.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) The 14 October Memorial: The Multifaceted Meanings of Space on “14 October Heritage” Discourse 2020-12-25T11:40:13+07:00 Benjawan Thatsanaleelaporn <p>This article aims to explore the multi-faceted meanings of space of the 14 October memorial on “14 October Heritage” discourse. The research uses anthropological methods of “fieldwork” as a reading tool to examine the physical space of the 14 October memorial as well as the practicing space of 14 October Foundation through the relationships between people, activities and time. The study shows that the 14 October memorial is the first memorial place in Thailand that valued the loss of people who fought for democracy. Initially, the memorial was designated for supporting “rituals” or activities held on various occasions which help to preserve its original meaning as a m emorial. However, since the place open to the public, it constitutes the processes of “social space” which has been established in various forms and hence creating different meanings under different sets of power relations. Therefore, the result of this study reaffirms that the meaning (values) of space is by no means ‘fixed’; under different circumstances, new meanings emerge, are reproduced and reinvented in multi-faceted ways.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Penal Colonies: Modern Penal Practices after the Siamese Revolution of 1932 2020-12-25T11:40:13+07:00 Sarunyou Thepsongkraow <p>The paper aims to study the history of modern penal colonies in Thailand during the 1930s–1950s by exploring concept, establishment and development of penal colonies. The study found that modern penal colonies were the result of efforts to penal reform after the Siamese Revolution 1932 under the concept of inmates rehabilitation for good citizenship which led to the establishment of Penal Colonies in Yala and Nakhon Ratchasima Province. Penal practice in penal colonies focused on economic productions and healthcare for prisoners. However, the problem of surveillance prisoners, inefficient institutional management and the crisis of the World War II led to the failure of the penal colonies until the government decided to dissolve the penal colonies after the Coup of 1947.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Architectural Transformation of a Mondop to a Bell Shaped Chedis Raised on High Base in the Late Sukhothai Art: Evidence from Kamphaengphet Ancient City 2020-12-28T13:49:48+07:00 Praphat Chuvichean <p>This article examines the transformation of <em>Mondop</em> (the Buddha image house in Sukhothai Art in around the 13th Century A.D.) at Kamphaengpet Ancient City. The change in an architectural style is witnessed in the top part, from an application of general timber superstructure into <em>“Bell-shaped Chedi-spired Mondop”</em> (<em>Mondop</em> with a bell-shaped Chedi on the top). Such a style is considered a unique Kamphaengpet's style in the late 14th Century A.D.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The <em>bell-shaped Chedi-spired Mondop</em> was transformed into a bell-shaped style Chedi of Sukhothai Art in the early 15<sup>th</sup> Century A.D. A high solid base was created, instead of a hollow building enclosure, as a support for a bell-shaped Chedi, as shown at the main Chedi of Wat Sriphichitkittikalyaram Sukhothai (built in 1404 A.D.) created by an important monk from Kamphaengpet. This artistic feature can also be found at the principal Chedi of Wat Chedi Sung Sukhothai. Later in the late 15th Century A.D., this structure of high solid base to support the bell-shaped Chedi was re-created in Kamphaengpet, as evidenced at the principal Chedi of Wat Avas Yai.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;This artistic evolution represents the rise of the political and religious significance of Kamphaengpet since the early 15<sup>th</sup> Century A.D, indicating that Kamphaengpet was politically used as a base to conquer Sukhothai region by Suphannaphum Dynasty of Ayutthaya.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) The Planning Concept of Wat Borom Phuttharam in Urban Context 2020-12-25T11:40:15+07:00 Wiroj Sheewasukthaworn <p>The paper presents the concept of Wat Borom Phuttharam's planning concerning the urban context, explores both in physical and political aspects. The results reveal that Wat Borom Phuttharam's layout is different from the traditional layout. Lying along the north-south axis, which is parallel to the street and canal, Wat Borom Phuttharam's layout was created in relation to essential places in the centre of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, such as Wat Phra Sri Sanphet and Phra Thinang Chakrawad Paichayon Mahaprasat. Besides, the construction of Wat Borom Phuttharam suggests the relationship between King Prasat Thong and King Phra Phetracha evidencing in donating their former estate before ascending the throne for building a monastery as well as in upholding Buddhism like the Chakravartin.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Transformation and Meanings of the Miniature Mountain at Wat Ratchakhrue, Thonburi 2020-12-28T14:22:28+07:00 Siridate Wangkran <p>This study began with an interest in historical, architectural and social values of a miniature mountain (Khao Mo) at Wat Ratchakhrue Worawihan, Thonburi District, Bangkok that in-depth study is scarce. This miniature mountain has been renovated many times. Through documentary research and fieldwork, it is reasonably to hypothesize that development of Thai Buddhist cults affected meanings and appearance of this miniature mountain. Wat Ratchakhrue was previously known as Wat Bang Yi Ruea Nai. In 1792, after restored by Chao Phraya Phra Khlang (Hon), a minister of the Harbour Department (Krom Tha) during the reign of King Rama I, the temple was changed to the present name corresponding to Rajgriha (Rajgir) in India. Chao Phraya Phra Khlang (Hon) also built a miniature mountain as the principal structure of the temple compound to place a stupa enshriningrelic of the Buddha with the aim to achieve Nirvana in the future. The stupa was situated at the top of the miniature mountain, a sacred place representing the Gijjhakuta [the Holy Eagle Peak], the favorite retreat of the Buddha in Rajgriha, India as well as the Tavatimsa Heaven on the submit of Meru Mountain surrounded by the Himavanta forest on the base. In 1799, a replica of a Buddha footprint and a shadow of the Buddha was created by Chao Phraya Phra Khlang (Hon). Phra Mondop [a shrine in a cross plan and surmounted by a spire roof] was newly constructed to house the footprint and the shadow on top of the miniature mountain and became the up to date principal architecture of the temple compound. The footprint and the shadow may represent a Buddha footprint and a shadow of the Buddha at Wat Phra Phutthachai in Saraburi. Later a cult of Buddha footprints in particular in Saraburi Province became highly valued among the people of Siam. The miniature mountain was gradually renovated during the reign of King Rama IV to King Rama V by local artisans. Phra Mondop and renovated miniature mountain were transformed the former to latter cults and represent a mondop housing a Buddha footprint on a small hill at Wat Phra Phutthabat in Saraburi.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) The Early Developments of Royal Residences prior to the Construction of Chakri Maha Prasat Complex, 1868-1875 2020-12-25T10:30:08+07:00 Patcharapong Kulkanchanachewin <p>The paper is of the Royal Residences in Royal Grand Palace during the early period of King Chulalongkorn (A.D.1868-1875), before the building of Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall. The focuses are on the early developments of Royal Residences' complex, and on how Western-style architecture was adopted for its design. The study demonstrates that the complex can be divided into three main periods: The first period was created by Siamese's royal master builders between 1868 and 1873. The buildings of this period consisted of Phra thi nang Munsathan Borommaat and Phra thi nang Sommottithewarat Upabat Halls. The second period, constructed between 1870 and 1875, included Phra thi nang Borommaratchasathit Mahoran Hall. The third period was carried out between 1876 and 1882, during which Chakri Maha Prasat was constructed. However, this study focuses only on the first two developments. The argument put forward in this study is that while, on the exterior, Chakri Maha Prasat Royal Residences' complex looked Western, their interior and layout showed the preservation of traditional hierarchy, not unlike those of Pra Maha Montien in Royal Grand Palace.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Identical Characteristics of Tai Vernacular Houses in Mong Yawng, Shan State, Myanmar 2020-12-28T15:26:49+07:00 Kanyarat Arthanit Rawiwan Oranratmanee <p>The Tai in Mong Yawng in Shan State of Myanmar, known as Tai Yawng, are Tai Lue who migrated from Sibson Panna several hundred years ago. They brought the indigenous Tai Lue housing patterns and adopted some local patterns of Tai Yai and Tai Khun as well as some modern influences, resulted in the localized patterns. This study explored the villages and houses in this area which has not been researched extensively. Although unique and well-conserved, they are at risk of changes due to modernization and tourism accessibility to the area. The research focus is on the dynamics of architectural patterns as occurred in Tai vernacular architecture. Altogether four villages and nineteen houses are surveyed. The criteria for the selection of villages under study are ones that its villagers continue the peasant way of life and exist the Tai houses; the houses under study, are chosen from their ages of no less than 15 years whose indigenous Tai housing patterns remain. The field methods were based on observations and interviews with inhabitants, leaders and key persons in the area. The results from the survey reveal some identical Tai Lue housing patterns along with some adopted patterns of Tai Yai and Tai Khun. Some climatic adaptation and changes due to the needs and demands of households are also observable in the architecture, as resulted in unique characteristics of its elements.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Bangkok Inner Orchard’s Landscape: The Interpretation from Old Maps and Photographs 2020-12-25T11:39:32+07:00 Vudipong Davivongs Sigit Arifwidodo <p>Bangkok Inner Orchard was a cultural landscape of fruit orchard dating back to Ayutthaya period. Thai literature and foreigners' records described the atmosphere and landscape of Bangkok Inner Orchard, regarding it as the place for premium fruit produces. However, such description lacks spatial attributes such as location and area, including landscape character and vegetation. Therefore, this study focused on interpreting old maps and photographs to fulfil the literature's missing spatial qualities. Thirteen old maps and two collections of old photographs in different periods were analysed as the empirical evidence for interpreting the embedded contents and details related to the orchard. Documents and history literature review was also used for cross-examining.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The interpretation revealed a more precise understanding of Bangkok Inner Orchard's location and area, located along the Chao Phraya riverbank, mostly on the western bank of the river. Analysis of maps in 1959 and 2000 revealed the expansion of orchard areas. For landscape character issues, the old maps showed the orchard’s compartmentalised pattern called “Khanat” along with the ditches and dikes irrigation system. The inscription on the old maps and the old photographs taken on the sites helped identify vegetation types in the orchards, such as various fruit trees planted together with betel nut, coconut, and sugar palm trees. The urbanisation of Bangkok affected the changes in the inner orchard. Although the new orchard area has increased, some of the older orchards have been encroached upon by urban sprawl. Thus, they become fragmented and particularly vulnerable from the effects of directionless urbanisation.</p> 2020-12-25T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c)