NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture <h3><strong>NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture&nbsp;</strong></h3> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture</em></strong> is a blind peer-reviewed journal devoted to the promotion and study of all aspects of the history of architecture, architectural conservation in Thailand and neighbouring countries, and the development of Thai architecture both as a scholarly discipline and practice. Founded in 2004, <em>NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture</em> is the only periodical in Thailand committed primarily to the subjects. Since 2019, the Journal publishes twice a year by Faculty of Architecture, Silpakorn University.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<em>NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture</em> is abstracted and indexed in the ACI Index and TCI Index. Papers from all volumes are available on the <strong>ThaiJO</strong> website:&nbsp;<a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN 1686-1841&nbsp;(Print) </strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN 2697-3901&nbsp;(Online) </strong></p> Department of Architecture and Related Arts, Faculty of Architecture, Silpakorn University en-US NAJUA: History of Architecture and Thai Architecture 1686-1841 Content <p>--</p> Najua Najua Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 1 5 Editorial <p>--</p> Najua Najua Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 6 7 Chinese Architectural Heritage on the West Coast of Southern Thailand <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;This article is a part of a dissertation entitled “Chinese Heritage on the West Coast of Southern Thailand: A Holistic Approach to Identification and Conservation”. &nbsp;Chinese architectural heritage on the West Coast or the Andaman Sea Coast of Southern Thailand has a long history and has great significance, namely, Chinese shophouses, shrines, and tombs. Case studies include Chinese shophouses in Takuapa old town, Phang-nga province; Mazhu or Ma Zhor Po Shrine in Phang-nga city; Sang Tham Shrine in Phuket old town; Kew Hong Ear Shrine in Tubtiang Town or Trang city; and Khaw Su Jiang’s Tomb in Ranong city area. The aim of this study is to explore Chinese heritage as well as the backgrounds of their communities.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The two-storey Chinese shophouses in Takuapa old town were built more than one hundred years and are unique and different from other places. Ma Zhor Po Shrine in Phang-nga city has mural paintings which depict several stories of legendary Chinese folk heroes and popular Chinese stories, such as Hongsin or the Creation of the Gods and the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Sang Tham Shrine in Phuket old towns is famous for its roof decorated in style popular in Southern China, and the interior mural paintings depict the story of Xue Ren Gui, a legendary Chinese folk hero of the Tang Dynasty. Ma Zhor Po and Sang Tham Shrines were built for over one hundred years ago. These two Chinese shrines and Kew Hong Ear Shrine in Trang city had been constructed by using traditional building techniques of Southern China. Kew Hong Ear Shrine has a sky well at the centre bringing light and ventilation into the shrine, while Khaw Su Jiang’s Tomb or the First Governor of Ranong’s Tomb in Ranong city has existed for over one hundred years and was designed based on Fengshui Principles with unique characteristics differing from other tombs.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The finding is that Chinese people came to settle in this area for over one hundred years. They came from Hokkien or Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan provinces in Southern China. They popularly depicted legendary Chinese folk heroes in mural paintings of Chinese shrines while applied traditional building techniques of Southern China and belief in Fengshui Principles in order to preserve their Chinese identity and pass the community heritage on to future generations.</p> Suthi Wongmongkondate Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 8 37 Baan Xavier: A Modern Roman Catholic Church Architecture in Thailand <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;This paper studies the architectural works of Baan Xavier Church, designed by Professor Emeritus Captain Krisda Arunvongse Na Ayudhya in 1971. The paper questions the combined characteristics of modern international architecture and Thai architecture as exemplified by Baan Xavier Church. Drawing upon documents and interviews architects and priests involved in the project, this paper aims to understand the dual aspects of the church and to analyze their relationship, which will lead to a better understanding about the unique characteristics of the modern Roman Catholic Church in Thailand.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The study found that circumstances which gave rise to the mingled characteristics of Baan Xavier Church were fourfold: Firstly, the event of the Second Vatican Council which established the conceptual framework for creating sacred spaces in modern Roman Catholic Church; Secondly, the Policy of the Government of Thailand which focused on economic and social development, while at the same time creating Thai identity. The Catholic Church in Thailand adopted the ideas by adapting Thai architectural elements in the creation of modern Roman Catholic Churches. Thirdly, the Jesuits’s encouragement for young generation to develop themselves based on democratic concepts by establishing Baan Xavier as the student centre for intellectual activities; Fourthly, the architect’s idea in designing Baan Xavier Church, focusing on dimensions of continuation, modification, reinvention which led to the combination between the internationalism and local Thai aspects of the church.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The finding drawn is that the architect combined international aspects of modern architecture with Thai characters, commonly found in almost all regions in Thailand, resulting in the new style of church architecture where internationalism and localism coexist.&nbsp;</p> Supawan Pundi Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 38 77 Survey and Inventory of Valuable Buildings Worthy of Preservation in Talaad Bon Community, Sawi District, Chumphon Province <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;This article is a result of the research project entitled “Survey and Inventory of Valuable Buildings Worthy of Preservation in Talaad Bon Community, Sawi District, Chumphon Province” supported by the Faculty of Architecture of King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, the Na Pho District Munici-pality, educational institutions, a local historic preservation group, and owners of residences in the Talaad Bon Community.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;From the field surveys conducted during this project, a total of 62 buildings in the community were identified as being worthy of preservation. All of them are vital in telling the history of significant events or prominent persons of the community. They are also significant because of their architectural value, precisely their beautiful craftsmanship and their decorations that are illustrative of the past.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Data collection in this article aims to be a reference documentation for stakeholders in the fields of urban planning, community and social development, and economic development for cultural tourism. This report would also provide residents with information to retain their way of life, maintain their community’s identity, and have pride for the community’s future.</p> Parinya Chukaew Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 78 99 The Characteristics of Vernacular House Plans in Northeast Thailand along Chi River Basin <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;In Northeast Thailand, vernacular houses can be divided into three groups:&nbsp;<em>Koey</em>&nbsp;house,&nbsp;<em>Khong&nbsp;</em>house and&nbsp;<em>Faed</em>&nbsp;house. &nbsp;All share the common characteristic of orientation called “following the sun”, by which it means, the narrow sides of the biggest room in the house, usually a bedroom, are facing East-West directions, while its longer sides are towards North-South directions. &nbsp;This paper studies the orientation of the Northeast vernacular dwellings, focusing on ways in which their main rooms such as bedroom, kitchen, terraces, and stair are located and organised. &nbsp;From the case studies of 22 houses in total, 19 of which are planned as “following the sun”, which can further be categories into 2 sub-groups: the first group, consisting of 9 houses, has bedroom in the North; the second group, composed of 5 houses, has bedroom in the South. &nbsp;In both cases, however, the kitchen is always located in the West, and whichever side the stair is situated, the bedroom is on the opposite side; for example, if the stair is located in the North, the bedroom is towards the South. This house orientation shows local wisdom in designing with the local climatic conditions and the use of domestic spaces at different times of the day in mind.</p> Wachirapong Kittirach Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 100 119 Palaces in Chiang Mai Old City: A Case Study of Chao Singh Kaew’s Palace <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Choa Singh Kaew’s Palace is one of five palaces in Chiang Mai which is in intact condition and located inside Chiang Mai town. The completeness and location of the palace make it essential for Chiang Mai town in terms of empirical evidence of Chiang Mai history. This study aims to explore local history and insight about Choa Singh Kaew, which will be useful for conservation planning in the future. The study was carried out in three parts: 1) conducting primary sources and interview 2) surveying existing sites and buildings 3) analysing building conditions by evaluating the integrity of the building, the result of which will be used for conservation planning.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The study found that the architecture of this palace consists of mixed influences of Northern and Siamese styles.&nbsp; The building evaluation, divided into four topics, confirm that overall conditions of the building retain original characters, although parts of the building have been renovated, building techniques remain the same. Since the palaces have from time to time been repaired and expanded, the new building in modern style inharmonious with the original is added, making the overall layout lacking concordance. This later development diminishes the notability of building and affects the overall value of the Choa Singh Kaew’s Palace setting.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;However, on the whole, this palace has been kept in good condition and has outstanding beauty. It is one of the historical buildings in Chiang Mai which should be regarded as valued treasure.</p> Piyadech Akarapotiwong Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 120 143 Sunyata (Emptiness) Vihara <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Sunyata (Emptiness) Vihara project aims to create new Thai architecture by using Buddhist philosophy as a concept, intended primarily to be perceived and experienced. The study was conducted through reviewing, understanding and analyzing various visions of Sunyata as well as the perceptions of emptiness, following which, the design process was carried out. &nbsp;The study found that the concepts of emptiness can be interpreted and designed by using enclosed space in order to cut off the senses of awareness and make concentration. Moreover, Thai traditional patterns and ornaments are intentionally simplified. &nbsp;Austere elements such as plain colours and materials are adopted to decrease mental formations through visual perceptions, allowing access to emptiness. Finally, the thesis proposes that the fast ways to introduce peoples into the emptiness can be conducted through architectural spaces that form a sense of awareness from Being to Non-being.</p> Anongluk Kaikaew Rutai Jaijongrak Thaipat Puchitchawakorn Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 144 175 Podiums in a Rail-based City Changing the Urbanscape in Central Business District, Bangkok <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The study of the present urbanscape of the central business district of Bangkok, Silom - Sathorn area, including its urban design controls reveals the fact that all the related building control law and regulations are merely not enough to ensure the urban regeneration that would yield good quality buildings and public spaces in such important business area in the capital city, Bangkok.&nbsp; This research paper summarizes from a research on changing the urbanscape in central business district, Bangkok.&nbsp; The research methodologies include the analysis of urban planning and design standards, urbanscape related regulations of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, international case studies, along with the survey of Silom - Sathorn area.&nbsp; The research aims to analytically introduce the guidelines for the area regeneration, especially in term of ‘urban design’ that importantly points out the adjustment of buildings’ “podium” in the central business district.&nbsp; This is to ensure the development of good public spaces that can be responsive to pedestrian environment and human scale at the time when Bangkok has been largely transforming to be a rail-based city in the next decade.&nbsp; The research outcome includes the recommendation that Bangkok should set up ‘urban design review committees’ to help diagnose the project development’s master plan and architectural details in all important urban areas in order to control the quality of the urbanscape in correspond to urban contexts and in addition to incentives and law controls.</p> Khaisri Paksukcharern Copyright (c) 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 16 2 176 197