NBTC Journal https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal <p>สำนักงานคณะกรรมการกิจการกระจายเสียง กิจการโทรทัศน์ และกิจการโทรคมนาคมแห่งชาติ (สำนักงาน กสทช.) ดำเนินการจัดทำวารสาร กสทช. (NBTC Journal) ขึ้น เพื่อเป็นแหล่งรวบรวมองค์ความรู้ และงานวิจัยที่เกี่ยวกับการบริหารคลื่นความถี่ การกำกับดูแลกิจการกระจายเสียง กิจการโทรทัศน์ กิจการโทรคมนาคม และกิจการวิทยุคมนาคม ทั้งในมิติของวิศวกรรมศาสตร์ นิติศาสตร์ เศรษฐศาสตร์ การบริหารจัดการ หรือนิเทศศาสตร์ ตลอดจนเผยแพร่ความรู้ดังกล่าว เพื่อประโยชน์ในการพัฒนากิจการกระจายเสียง กิจการโทรทัศน์ และกิจการโทรคมนาคมของประเทศต่อไป</p> en-US <p>เนื้อหาหรือบทความที่ปรากฏในวารสารวิชาการ กสทช.&nbsp; เป็นลิขสิทธิ์ของสำนักงานคณะกรรมการกิจการกระจายเสียง กิจการโทรทัศน์ และกิจการโทรคมนาคมแห่งชาติ<br> (สำนักงาน กสทช.) ซึ่งสำนักงาน กสทช. ขอสงวนสิทธิ์มิให้นำเนื้อหา ข้อความ หรือบทความไม่ว่าทั้งหมดหรือส่วนหนึ่งส่วนใดไปเผยแพร่ คัดลอก หรือตีพิมพ์ซ้ำโดยเด็ดขาด<br>เว้นแต่ได้รับอนุญาตเป็นลายลักษณ์อักษร&nbsp; ทั้งนี้ ข้อความ หรือความคิดเห็นที่ปรากฏในบทความแต่ละเรื่องที่ตีพิมพ์ในวารสารนี้ เป็นความคิดเห็นของผู้เขียน <br>ไม่ผูกพันต่อคณะกรรมการกิจการกระจายเสียง กิจการโทรทัศน์ และกิจการโทรคมนาคมแห่งชาติ (กสทช.) และสำนักงาน กสทช.&nbsp; รวมทั้งกรณีหากมี<br>การละเมิดสิทธิ์ถือเป็นความรับผิดชอบของผู้เขียนโดยตรงไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับสำนักงาน กสทช. แต่ประการใด</p> nbtcjournal@nbtc.go.th (Ms. Sarothorn Puspakom) nbtcjournal@nbtc.go.th (Ms. Chathatai Meepradit) Fri, 25 Nov 2022 16:01:47 +0700 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Merger of True Corporation and Total Access Communication (DTAC): Technological Perspective https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/262270 <p>This article summarized the study result of the subcommittee for analyzing business combination case between True Corporation Public Company Limited and Total Access Communication Public Company Limited (DTAC). The objective was to gather opinions on technological analysis of business merger cases through case studies from the USA, Canada, and Malaysia. Procedures of the study were as follows: 1) set hypothesis of merger scheme and spectrum ownership of each company during the next five years, taking into account the expiring spectrum; 2) calculate and analyze each company's spectrum capacity, both on supply and demand by setting calculation formula and variables in line with the hypothesis; 3) compare the services between approved and denied merger cases; and 4) analyze mobile numbers and consider the merger scheme under various possible conditions of spectrum ownership, during 2022 and 2025. Impending allocated spectrum was excluded because of unknowable future allocation. The study found three business formats with different conditions as follows: 1) allow merging of all spectrum; 2) allow merging of some spectrum; and 3) deny merging.</p> AM Thanapant Raicharoen, Ph.D. Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/262270 Mon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Regulation Strategy in the New Telecommunication Market https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260384 <p>The Objectives of this academic article aimed to study study and the environment of new telecommunication market and guide to amend the policy or formulate a strategy for regulation in the new telecommunication market. This study is documentary research that reviews the literature and research on the subject about characteristics of the new telecommunication market, the impact of the industry as a result of the development of telecommunications, and strategy of the communication regulation in digital age from FCC and Ofcom. The telecommunication business faces problems in the main dimensions included that, declining market share crisis and infrastructure and broadband network development crisis. &nbsp;The suggestion for regulation strategy in the new telecommunication market should announced the strategy issues included (1) spectrum management in line with technological developments and reduce obstacles in doing business (2) consideration of management regulations with net neutrality and Collection of taxes or fees from digital platform providers (3) 6G research and development, and promoting innovation in the country's space affairs to build the next generation telecommunication network and (4) universal access to a wide range of telecommunication services and reducing the digital divide.</p> Asst.Prof.Dr.Phoomsisth Mahavessiri Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260384 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Adopting Mobile Application for Missing Person Finder: A Case Study of “U-NAI” Application https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/259498 <p>When a family member went missing, especially a child, the chances of them returning home safely were much lower if it has been a long time. The first 72 hours of being lost were critical in many countries. Tracking down a missing person as soon as possible increased chances of survival and reuniting with families. This article aims to study the use of mobile application to track missing persons in foreign countries, and to develop the “U-NAI” application on mobile devices to track missing person in Thailand. Documents and researches from abroad and in Thailand were studied as guidelines for developing the application. The study result found that families of missing person could find information about him or her through the application in a timely manner, and could report the missing case by themselves. Photos and information of the missing person could also be shared on other social media platforms. However, to successfully track the missing person, a complete database system must be available, and for ultimate benefits, the civil society should be encouraged to use the application.</p> rachadaporn mornmoung Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/259498 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Popularity of Children’s Programs on Thai Digital Terrestrial Television https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/253806 <p>This article aims to study and analyze the current market of children’s programs on Thai digital terrestrial television by analyzing the program format, content, and key success factors from successful children’s programs in order to promote the production of children’s television programs in Thailand. The study analyzed the format and content of programs as well as the television rating data from AGB Nielsen Media Research (Thailand) Company Limited. The study found that during 2015 and 2020, number of children’s programs on Thai digital terrestrial television has been continually declining. There was only three-fourth of children’s programs in 2020 when compared to 2015. Moreover, the successful children’s programs, in terms of rating, had specific program format and include not only children but also other target audiences. This article compiled recommendations for both network operators and content creators. It is recommended that contents with high popularity and those with limited quantity should be created. The NBTC, as a content regulator, is suggested to provide support in terms of fund and knowledge so that children’s programs be developed and sustained on Thai digital terrestrial television.</p> Benyathip Laorrojwong, Nicharpawee Kokkamhaeng, Damiya Pongtanee Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/253806 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Key Success Factors in Refarming of 3500 MHz Band: Lesson Learned from Brazil https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/253375 <p>More than 600 MHz of frequency bands were allocated for International Mobile Telecommunications: IMT services, however, they were insufficient for 5G technology. <br />The 3500 MHz frequency band was therefore allocated for the 5G technology. Currently, <br />the 3500 MHz frequency band is provided for both satellite television and fixed-satellite services in Thailand, and thus it needs to be refarmed. In the Federative Republic of Brazil, over 30 percent of households depended on the 3500 MHz frequency band for satellite television services. The country had successfully refarmed the frequency so that it could be used for both satellite television and fixed-satellite services. This paper aims to study the key success factors of the spectrum refarming of 3500 MHz frequency band in Brazil as well as to propose the refarming guidelines for Thailand through interviews with people involved in Brazil’s refarming process. The results revealed that the key success factors were the clear objectives and practical technical and economic options. Moreover, the frequency interference problem solving using scientific principles and the participating of stakeholders were also key success factors for spectrum refarming.</p> Pratompong Srinuan Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/253375 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Ransomware: A Corporate Threat That Cannot Be Overlooked https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/253788 <p>Ransomware became a form of cyber threats that was able to broadly impact or may enormously damage organizations. This article aims to transfer knowledge and enhance awareness associated with ransomware among related stakeholders, namely system administrators, executives, and staff within the organizations. The authors had studied and collected related information about ransomware, including its evolution, concept, form, and strategies, and also the guidelines to deal with ransomware. In addition, the news about ransomware in Thailand and overseas reported on the Internet was also assembled. From this study, it was found that ransomware obstructed the information access by logging in or locking all the tools and systems. There were various kinds of ransomware. Most cases of ransomware targeted large private corporations, government organizations and national infrastructure systems. The most serious ransomware was the case that the files were permanently lost although the ransom had been paid. Therefore, both private and public organizations needed to raise awareness of the cyber threats in their organizations through various processes, <br />such as training, knowledge transfer, and capacity enhancing of personnel at different levels, in particular information system administrators and users, so that they were knowledgeable and capable of preventing and dealing with problems that might occur from ransomware attacks. Able of preventing and dealing with problems that may occur from ransomware attacks.</p> Pana Ungkap, Therdpong Daengsi Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/253788 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Service-Based Architecture of Core Network Architecture for 5G Technology https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/254085 <p>This academic paper aims to study and explain the essential elements of 5G technology, especially the Service-Based Architecture (SBA) by studying from documents and relevant standard sources. The results found that the SBA consists of 11 key functions which are responsible for 5G network operation including network exposure function, NF repository function, network storage function, network slice selection function, unified data management, policy control function, session management function, access and mobility management function, user plane function, authentication server function, application function, and data network. This will help readers gain a deeper understanding of how 5G technology works and lead to research development or applying 5G appropriately. For example, a real-time application to control remote medical surgeries, self-driving vehicles and a more secure wireless network.</p> Pongpisit Wuttidittachotti, Phisit Pornpongtechavanich Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/254085 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Developing Learning Skills for Digital Citizenship https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260058 <p>Digital intelligence is one of the 21<sup>st</sup> century’s essential skills. To achieve the digital citizenship, digital intelligence needs to be developed so that people can earn their living and have good quality of life. This article aims to study the learning skills and digital intelligence, which are the foundation of digital citizenship, among Thai people in order to review the roles of the NBTC and the NBTC Office in encouraging digital citizen to drive Thailand forward. Suggestions were also proposed in a bid to forge the digital citizenship in Thailand. <br />From reviewing academic documents and researches both in Thailand and from overseas, <br />it was found that in order to be a smart digital citizen with digital literacy, and to achieve <br />the digital intelligence quotient, eight skills need to be developed, namely, digital citizen identity, screen time management, cyberbullying management, network security management, privacy management, critical thinking, digital footprint, and digital empathy. The roles of the NBTC and the NBTC Office were to educate, set up policies, and create guidelines for consumer protection on a continual basis in order to move Thailand forward with digital citizenship. An appropriate use of digital technologies in learning and education would set a standard of smart and safe use of technologies for innovative creation.</p> Yasinee Kertpolsert Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260058 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Adoption of Mobile Applications in Agriculture among Farmers in Nan, Thailand https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260371 <p>With the rise of digital technologies and smartphones, mobile applications in agriculture based on smartphones have been rapidly developed. However, the benefits of mobile applications in agriculture for crop operations, farm management, and information system have not been fully achieved due to the low level of adoption. This paper studied: (1) the relation between age and educational level of farmers and size of farms, and the adoption of mobile applications; and (2) the perception of farmers towards the advantages and disadvantages of mobile applications. It adopted a case study method to analyze 60 crop farmers in Nan PGS (Participatory Guarantee System) agriculture group. The results showed that the adoption of applications depended on age and education level, whereas the size of farms had no relation with the adoption. Moreover, the results indicated a different perception of advantages and disadvantages of mobile applications among users, non-users, and prospective users. The groups of non-users and prospective users ranked lowest scores on the advantages on farm management. It is therefore suggested that educational institutions and agricultural development agencies should encourage new generation farmers to use agricultural-related applications and build awareness on the applications. This would then increase the application adoption and thereby help improve farm productivity.</p> Rungroge Kamondetdacha Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260371 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Development of Chatbot Program for Digital Citizenship Skill Development: Safety Use of Digital Technology among Senior Citizens https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/252527 <p>The objectives of the project were to study the digital citizenship skills in connection with digital technology safety among Thai senior citizens, and the relationship between digital citizenship skills improvement and their acceptance of technology. The study result would be used for developing chatbot program as an assistant for safe use of digital technology among senior citizens. The methodology included in-depth interview with experts as well as survey and focus group discussion with senior citizens. The findings showed that Thai senior citizens' digital citizenship skills lay upon their IT literacy, self-protection, respecting others, and digital securitization. In addition, digital citizenship skills in IT safety among Thai senior citizens significantly related to their acceptance of technology, and Line application was the most used application among them. Therefore, the chatbot program suitable for senior citizens in the Line application was developed as an assistant to educate and advise Thai senior citizens on IT safety. After the trial, it was found that the chatbot program satisfactorily helped improving digital citizenship skills in IT safety among senior citizens. Consequently, it was recommended that related organizations should integrate the use of this innovative communication as a means to promote lifelong learning among senior citizens.</p> Ousa Biggins, Chawaporn Dhamanitayakul, Kunyarat Sriwitsatiyakul, Ussanee Malisuwan Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/252527 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 A Study on Radio Wave Propagation in Chiang Dao Cave https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/256861 <p>During the Tham Luang Search and Rescue operation in 2018, a problem occurred from wireless communication system fail due to the fact that the frequencies used were highly attenuated while propagating in the cave. According to the radio wave propagation theory, low frequencies had surface-wave properties and could penetrate through rock layers of mountains. Therefore, the hypothesis was that radio communication with low frequencies could provide better propagation in the cave than higher frequencies. This paper presented a study on radio wave propagation in caves to verify the problem and the possibility of using different frequencies to communicate. The study was done in Chiang Dao cave, Chiang Mai. In addition, the study proposed a propagation model of the radio frequencies in the LF to UHF bands by using the cave's dimension, environment, and passages. The study result found that low-frequency band could transmit through large-sized cave passages or rock layers. In contrast, higher frequency band highly attenuated while propagating through the cave passage. Furthermore, it was found that the modeling result corresponded with the measurement result. Therefore, the study result could be beneficial for determining appropriate low frequency bands to develop effective cave communication systems in the future.</p> Rangsan Wongsan, Peerasan Khamsalee, Akkhapun Wannakomol, Prayoth Kumsawat, Arthit Srikaew, Atawit Jantaupalee Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/256861 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Numeric Factors Affecting the Premium Mobile Numbers’ Auction Result: Thailand Case Study https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260594 <p>This article aimed to study the numeric factors influencing the premium mobile numbers’ auction result, and to develop a model by using the Logit model. This study was an experimental research from the auction data of office of the NBTC (Auction No. 2/2562). The study found that the format of premium numbers and auspicious numbers (excluding the auspicious sum variable) could significantly influence the auction probability. The results pointed out that premium numbers with 4 identical consecutive numbers and symmetrical numbers (mirror) were likely to have the highest chance of being auctioned - at 19.03% and 14.20% respectively. In addition, the author also determined the optimal cut-off point for measuring the correctness of derived model based on Youden’s index. The result showed that the optimal cut-point was at 0.60 with the accuracy rate of prediction as high as 82.39%. This study could enhance Office of the NBTC’s efficiency in auction managing and administering by setting an auction order in accordance with the trend of the result. Additional criteria on auspicious numbers should also be issued to reflect the intention of the premium number allocation.</p> poramate boonmee Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/260594 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Factors Affecting Willingness to Pay for Fixed Broadband Internet Service during COVID-19 Pandemic https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/256694 <p>Fixed broadband internet via Wi-Fi connection has been drastically increasing in Thailand. This research studied factors affecting the willingness to pay for fixed broadband internet during the COVID-19 pandemic. Household samples from various regions of Thailand were surveyed and analyzed by using multiple linear regression. Three main variables included the demographic characteristics, internet connection device, and changing in internet usage due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study revealed that the three variables contributed to higher willingness to pay. An increasing in willingness to pay indicated that the society enjoyed more benefits from unlicensed ban, in particular for the users. Therefore, regulators should promote free and fair competition, while regulate on service fees. At the same time, usage monitoring of unlicensed ban should be intensified so that better services can be provided to consumers.</p> Thunwar Phansatarn, Chalita Srinuan Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/256694 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Blockchain Ecosystem to Raise Thailand’s Telecommunication Sector to a Smart Society According to Thailand 4.0 Policy https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/258605 <p>Blockchain is a technology that is widely mentioned about, particularly for building trust and authentication in the digital world. A crucial factor for the success of applying blockchain in an industry consisting of different organizations is to develop a blockchain ecosystem that can accommodate telecommunication sector. The article’s goal was to design a blockchain ecosystem for Thailand’s telecommunication industry. In this study, focus group discussions were used to collect information from stakeholders. This information was employed to design a blockchain ecosystem for the telecommunication industry. The research result demonstrated a working environment under the blockchain ecosystem. In addition, five information system prototypes were developed including: an information system for the office of NBTC’s news and message notification; a system for gathering and verifying call data and service fees; a system for collecting and administering data on the verification of registration label on radiotelephony; a system for online checking of promotions and usage for general people; and a system for switching provider and keeping the same phone number. The system efficiency assessment indicated that the functional test and security test received highest scores with mean scores of 4.76 and 4.65 respectively. The functional requirement test and usability test received high scores with mean scores of 4.35 and 4.24 respectively.</p> Boonprasert Surakratanasakul, Worapoj Kreesuradej, Araya Ariya, Piraprob Junsantor, Bundit Busaba Copyright (c) 2022 NBTC Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/258605 Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0700