Mekong-Salween Civilization Studies Journal <p><strong><u>กำหนดออกเผยแพร่</u></strong> <br /> วารสารอารยธรรมศึกษา โขง-สาละวิน จัดทำโดยงานวิจัย สร้างสรรค์และเผยแพร่ศิลปวัฒนธรรม กองส่งเสริมศิลปวัฒนธรรม มหาวิทยาลัยนเรศวร เปิดรับบทความจากผู้เขียนทั้งภายในและภายนอกมหาวิทยาลัย บทความที่เสนอขอรับการพิจารณาอาจเขียนเป็นภาษาไทยหรือภาษาอังกฤษก็ได้ แต่บทคัดย่อต้องมีสองภาษา <strong>จัดพิมพ์เผยแพร่ปีละ 2 ฉบับ (ฉบับที่ 1 มกราคม-มิถุนายน และ ฉบับที่ 2 กรกฎาคม-ธันวาคม)</strong> <br /><br /><strong><u>วัตถุประสงค์</u></strong><br /> นโยบายการจัดพิมพ์ของวารสารอารยธรรมศึกษา โขง-สาละวิน เพื่อเป็นสื่อกลางในการแลกเปลี่ยนความรู้ และเผยแพร่ผลงานวิจัยในสหสาขาวิชาทางด้านมนุษยศาสตร์และสังคมศาสตร์ในมิติที่เกี่ยวข้องกับอารยธรรมในภูมิภาคลุ่มน้ำโขง-สาละวิน ได้แก่ สาขาวิชาศิลปะทั่วไปและมนุษยศาสตร์ (General Arts and Humanities) สาขาประวัติศาสตร์ (History) สาขาภาษาและภาษาศาสตร์ (Language and Linguistics) สาขาทัศนศิลป์และการแสดง (Visual Arts and Performing Arts) สาขาวัฒนธรรมศึกษา (Cultural Studies)</p> <p><br /><strong><u>วิธีพิจารณาบทความ</u></strong><br /> วารสารอารยธรรมศึกษา โขง-สาละวิน รับตีพิมพ์บทความวิจัย (Research Article) และบทความวิชาการ (Academic Article) โดยบทความดังกล่าวจะต้องไม่เคยได้รับการตีพิมพ์ หรืออยู่ระหว่างการพิจารณาเพื่อขอรับการตีพิมพ์ในวารสารวิชาการอื่น บทความทุกบทความจะต้องผ่านการประเมินโดยผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิ (Peer review) ใน <strong>สาขาวิชาที่เกี่ยวข้อง 3 ท่าน โดยผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิไม่รู้ว่าผู้เขียนเป็นใคร และผู้เขียนไม่รู้ว่าผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิเป็นใคร (Double-blinded Review)</strong> อนึ่ง การพิจารณารับบทความเพื่อลงตีพิมพ์หรือไม่ตีพิมพ์ อยู่ที่ดุลยพินิจของบรรณาธิการถือเป็นอันสิ้นสุด</p> <p><strong><u>วารสารจัดทำเป็น </u></strong><strong><u>2 รูปแบบ<br /></u></strong><strong> </strong>1. แบบตีพิมพ์เป็นตัวเล่ม ISSN 1906-7682 (Print)<br /> 2. แบบอิเล็กทรอนิกส์ ISSN 2651-2114 (Online) <strong> <br /></strong></p> en-US (วารสารอารยธรรมศึกษา โขง-สาละวิน) (นายพิเชษฐ์ สิงหเดช) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 16:19:09 +0700 OJS 60 Folk Beliefs and Worship of Chao Pho Hanuman in Thai Society <p>This research paper aims to examine “Hanuman cult” in Thai society from documents gathered from field studies during 2019-2021, which have been analyzed and interpreted by folklore methodologies. The research brings about this following revelation: there are eight Hanuman shrines today, namely, 1) Chao Pho Kamhaeng Hanuman Shrine in Taling Chan District, Bangkok 2) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine in Chomthong District, Bangkok 3) Luang Pho Hanuman Shrine, Samut Songkhram Province 4) Somdet Phra-ong Than Hanuman Shrine, Kanchanaburi Province 5) Chao Hanuman Shrine, Phetchaburi Province 6) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine, Prachuap Khirikhan Province 7) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine (Hanuman’s swamp), Prachinburi Province and 8) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine (Hanuman’s tributary), Prachinburi Province. All reflect that Hanuman cult has been originally derived from Ramakien, Siamese-versioned Ramayana, then this divine monkey is worshipped as a sacred spirit amongst the Central Thai as well as can be categorized into six aspects – 1) Hanuman (along with natural monkeys) as a guardian spirit 2) Hanuman Placenames 3) sacred floating sculpture of Hanuman 4) sculpture of Hanuman 5) Hanuman’s spirit mediums and 6) the belief of Phra Ram and Phra Lak’s monkey soldier. Hanuman cult, herein, can be assumingly traced back to “guarding spirit worship” based on indigenous belief, Buddhism, Hinduism and Chinese belief. </p> Rattanaphon Chuenka; Panupong Udomsilp, Sukanya Sujachaya Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Spirit Medium’s House in Thailand: Grammatical Relations and Classification according to Semantics Field in Naming <p>Spirit mediumship is a belief that has been associated with Thai society for a long time. In 2021, there are 108 spirit medium’s houses in Thailand. These spirit medium’s houses have different and unique names. This research aimed to study the grammatical relations and classification according to semantics field in naming of the spirit medium’s houses in Thailand. The data of 108 spirit medium’s houses were collected from Google Maps. The results of the analysis of grammatical relations revealed that the names of 27 spirit medium’s houses had a general structure, accounted for 25.00% of the total name lists. The syntactic hierarchy of complexity between the head nouns and the noun modifiers ranged from 2-4 syntactic hierarchies, in descending order as follows: 52 names with 2-syntactic hierarchy of complexity (48.15%); 22 names with 3-syntactic hierarchy of complexity (20.37%), 7 names with 4-syntactic hierarchy of complexity (6.48%). When the semantics field was classified, it was found that the head nouns consisted of kinship terms the most, showing the relationships among the sacred things and the owners of the spirit medium’s house and the people having faith in them. The noun modifiers contained the names of sacred things the most and had a more complex structure than those in the head nouns. This indicated that the noun modifier is the part that identifies or reveals the identity of sacred things as well as expressing their power or charisma. Therefore, it points out that although Thai society has Buddhism as the main religion, there are beliefs and faiths in the sacred things in “Brahmin-Hindu” and “sprit” cults, traditional beliefs that perfectly go together in Thai people’s way of life.</p> Siravast Kavilanan; Poonpong Ngamkasem, Phattharaphong phonphot Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Vocabulary of Sukhothai Dialect <p>This research aimed to study the Sukhothai dialect in terms of its vocabulary words that were the same as, similar to, or different from standard Thai and other dialects in Thailand. The researcher collected the data by interviewing the local informants who spoke the Sukhothai dialect and lived in Kong Krailas District, Sukhothai Province which was a study area. The results of the study revealed a total of 523 vocabulary words. When categorized according to their grammatical functions and analyzed their characteristics, they could be divided into 4 types: 1) vocabulary that was the same as standard Thai language, totaling 176 words (33.65%) which could be divided into words that corresponded to standard Thai and words that were close to standard Thai which had some differences, namely consonant sounds, vowels, tone, and number of syllables, 2) vocabulary that was similar to standard Thai, totaling 16 words (3.06%) in which some of them were similar to standard Thai in that the initial syllable sound was the same or similar, or the final syllable sound was the same or similar, 3) vocabulary that was similar to the Thai dialect, totaling 65 words (12.43%) which were divided into words that were similar to the northern dialects, north-east (Isan) dialect, and southern dialects, and 4) Sukhothai dialect vocabulary words, totaling 266 words (50.86%), in which these vocabulary words were both old words and new words created for use in the Sukhothai dialect users. These findings showed that the Sukhothai dialect had its unique accent and also local vocabulary</p> Watanachai Monying Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Foreign Language Loan Words in Royal Institute Dictionary: A Study of Word Forms and Semantic Categories <p>The objective of this study was to analyze the forms of loan words and semantic categories in the Royal Institute Thai dictionary of the edition 2011. This study only studied loan words in foreign languages ​​that the dictionary abbreviated (i.e., 15 languages which were Khmer, Chinese, Javanese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Mon, Bengali, Persian, Portuguese, French, Malay, Latin, English, Arabic and Hindi). This study found that there were a total of 1,710 loan words. The English loan words were highest (883 words or 51.64%). It was followed by Khmer loan words (430 words or 25.15%), and Chinese loan words (142 words or 8.30%). The number of Latin and Vietnamese loan words was lowest (2 words per language or 0.11 %). Foreign language loan words in Thai language were found in 8 forms, consisting of 1-syllable words, 2-syllable words, 3-syllable words, 4-syllable words, 5-syllable words, 6-syllable words, 7-syllable words, and 8-syllable words. The most common word form was 2-syllable words (795 words or 46.49%), followed by 3-syllable words (377 words or 22.04 %), and 1-syllable words (308 words or 18.01%). 8-syllable words were found the least (3 words or 0.18%). As for the semantic categories, it can be grouped into 17 groups. It was found that the meanings of most loan words were related to education, science, and technology, (447 words or 26.14%), followed by the meanings about nature and environment (195 words or 11.40%) and meaning about act (184 words or 10.76%). The meaning about vehicles was lowest (17 words or 0.99%). The results of this research will be beneficial to linguists who are interested in studying patterns of borrowed words and meaning groups of foreign language borrowings in the Thai language and will assist them to understand the characteristics of foreign language loan words. It is also a way to study society and culture from borrowed words.</p> Suchada Jiaphong Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Concept of Creating the Melodic Phrases in Thai String Ensemble: A Case Study of Thon Samo Thao <p>This research article is partially fulfilment of the research entitled <em>Thai String Ensemble Methodology: A case study of Associate Professor. Dr. Yootthana Chuppunnarat </em>aiming to create unique and individual melodic phrases in Thai string counterpoints harmoniously. This research was conducted by studying the principles of melody translation, melody variation, and melody counterpoint between Jakhe, Saw-Duang, Saw-U, and Khlui Pieng Or, using the Thon Samo Thao as a case study. This research employed a qualitative research methodology by using participant observation, interviews, note-takings, and researching academic papers, research articles, books, textbooks and digital media. The results showed that Thang Jakhe (The way of playing Jakhe) was the translation of the melody and acted as the major instrument of Khong Wong Yai, and Saw Duang, Saw-U, and Khlui Pieng Or were simply creating melodic phrases in their own direction in a proper manner. The creation of melodic phrases were based on 3 important principles: 1) maintaining the sound in the main melody, 2) conducting the melody in harmony with Thang Jakhe (The way of playing Jakhe), and 3) conducting the melody with rhyme. The rhetoric of the poems are as follows: 1) Klon Faak (Goal-delayed melodic phrases), 2) Klon Pan (Complex melodic phrases), and 3) Klon Lai Siang Kuen-Long (Way up and down passage) along with the harmonization of the instrument which was based on the principle of harmony.</p> Prachakon Srisakon Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Costume of Surin Khmer Yikay <p>The purpose of this research article was to study the types of costumes of Surin-Khmer Yikay of the Yikay Ban Pang band in Chumsang Sub-district, Chom Phra District, Surin Province. The qualitative research approach was employed. Various data sources were explored. In addition, a field case study was conducted to collect in-depth data via interviews and observation records. The findings showed that the costumes of Yikay were classified into 4 patterns: the leading man pattern, the leading lady pattern, dancer pattern, and ensemble pattern whose accessories represented status, role, and characteristics of each character. The costumes were divided into three sets as follows. First, the head pieces or “Sirabhorn” consisted of the crowns for the leading characters, Krajang Na or the head piece for the dancers, and the masks for the ensemble in the giant and monkey roles. Second, the body pieces or “Pattrabhorn” consisted of clothes made of silk for male and female and straight-sleeved shirts. Last, the accessories or “Tanimpimpabhorn” consisted of Krongkor or neck pieces, Sangwal or cross-body jewel chains, necklaces, earrings, bracelets, anklets, and long white socks. Yikay’s accessories reflected the reception of the influences from Thai musical folk drama or Likay and Khmer Yikay that Surin-Khmer Yikay bands adapted them to suit their community’s culture. Furthermore, the pattern of the costumes reflected intellectual clothing and accessory heritage of Northern Thai-Khmer’s culture.</p> Pongsatorn Yoddumnean; Anukoon Rotjanasuksomboon Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 A Study on the Meaning through the Auspicious Animal Patterns on Clothing of Fuk Luk Sau Statues <p>The purposes of this research were to investigate the meanings of the auspicious animal patterns on clothing of Fuk Luk Sau statues and explore how the meanings of these patterns were related to the statues. In this research, the fieldwork was conducted. Thirty-six samples of the Chinese auspicious animal patterns toward clothing of the Fuk Luk Sau statues derived from Jiangxi or Kangsai were collected for the study. The results suggested that the auspicious animal patterns consisted of dragons, cranes, lions, bats, and kirins. There were types of the images of dragons on Fuk statues: fairy tale dragons, dragon line drawings, and dragons in circles. They conveyed the meaning of high prestige and great power over other matters in the world. Meanwhile, cranes and lions on Luk statues symbolized prosperous life. Besides, bats and kirins appeared on Sau statues. There were two types of bats, including ancient bats and bat line drawings. The bats represented longevity and the five concepts of happiness: happiness, longevity, wealth, holding good morals, and passing with peace. Finally, the pictures of kirins demonstrated animals in the Chinese mythology. They were unique as they had unusual character contributing Chinese people to believe that they were sacred and able to eliminate evils and demons. Therefore, the auspicious animal patterns on clothing of Fuk Luk Sau statues can convey the grand wishes, perfectly corresponding to the meanings of the Fuk Luk Sau statues.</p> Tanawat Wongvekin; Chatchapat Chupattanakit , Chatuwit Keawsuwan Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Thang and Identity of the So-U within Naphat for Theatrical Performance <p>This article is part of the research titled “The <em>Thang</em> and Identity of the <em>So-U</em> within <em>Naphat</em> for Theatrical Performance”. The research purpose was to study and analyze the <em>thang</em> (a melodic expression of Thai traditional music) and identity that reflected the instrument's role, when the <em>naphat</em> composition with percussion elements was played by the stringed instrument for accompanying the state plays. With a selective approach to music analysis, the 3 versions of <em>thang </em>played by the 3 masters were examined: 1) Chiraphol Phetsom’s <em>t</em><em>hang</em><em>,</em> 2) Lerkiat Mahavinijchaimontri’s <em>t</em><em>hang</em>, and 3) Chaiwut Kosol’s <em>t</em><em>hang</em>. The results revealed that 26 aspects of points had been found, there were 17 types of musical idioms, and 9 specific playing tactics could be classified into 4 points as follows: 1) The idioms found in every version of a <em>thang</em> of the <em>naphat</em> pieces for stage plays represented 7 distinct aspects, including the idiom developed (<em>plae</em>) by imitating the main melody, undecorated melodies (<em>chao</em>), <em>kep</em><em>-</em>style melodies, melismatic styles (<em>uean</em>), a rhythmic delaying tactic (<em>yoi changwa</em>), fluctuation of melodic motion (<em>fat</em>), and repetition of notes. 2) 10 specific idioms were found in some pieces, including free-rhythm style (<em>loy changwa</em>), minimization of melodic unit (<em>thon</em>), immitation of <em>pi</em> <em>nai </em>(Thai shawm)’s melodic characteristics, the repeated notes of the two open strings, three-time repetition of notes, omission of the main structural notes (<em>luk tok lak</em>), disjunct motion, disjunct motion of notes in an octave interval, omitting starting notes, and “awkward” expression (<em>ilak-iluea</em>). 3) The 5 tactics found included vibrato (<em>phrom pit</em>), trill (<em>phrom poet</em>), short trill (<em>phrom chak</em>), acciaccatura (<em>krathop</em>), and a quick three-note syllable (<em>sabat</em>). 4) The 4 tactics for fingering and bow techniques were found only in some songs, consisting of acciaccatura notes (<em>tawat nio</em>), double speed (<em>khayi</em>), moving of hand position to lower position (<em>rut nio</em>), and portamento (<em>hon</em><em> siang</em>). The constitution of <em>so u</em>’s characteristics represented among 26 tactics could be synthesized into 4 aspects: 1) a duplicate of the main melody in its original form, 2) a developed form related to the main melody, 3) a typical phrase for the <em>so</em> <em>u</em>, and 4) an independent rendition based solely on the main structural notes (<em>luk tok lak</em>) of the main melody.</p> Waraporn Cherdchoo Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Doctoral Music Composition: The Sound of Phitsanulok for Chamber Orchestra <p>Doctoral music composition “The Sounds of Phitsanulok” for chamber orchestra is a contemporary composition in a descriptive musical style inspired by essential tourist attractions and lifestyles of the Phitsanulok people, a province with a long history. The objectives are to study information about tourist attractions and important places to create a song that reflects the way of life as a medium for promoting cultural tourism in Phitsanulok Province. The total length of the composition is approximately 30 minutes and is divided into five movements: Wat Yai, Wang Chan Palace and King Naresuan Shrine, Kuytiew Hoy-kha, Sam-lor Thib and Ruean Pae. The main melody in each movement is different according to the location that has been defined; most of the main melodies use the pentatonic scale and are based on tonal music. To convey the locality with an oriental music accent, it uses an effortless composition technique, rhythm, rhythmic pattern, and scales, using the principle of transpose to maintain the main melody. And the creation of music by combining the orchestra's arrangement with Thai musical instruments, "Ranat Ek," to represent the uniqueness of the composition.</p> Worachat Kitrenu; Narongrit Dhamabutra Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Development of Western Dance Education in Thailand <p>The objectives of this dissertation were to study the development of western dance education, the administration of dance institutes, and ways to apply western dance knowledge to future careers of learners. The time period which the research focused on was from 1999 to 2020. The research employed a qualitative research method, including a literature review, observation, field surveys, the researcher’s personal experience, and in-depth interviews with directors and teachers in both public and private dance institutes and with learners aged 18 years old and above, whose dance skills were not identified. The data were analyzed, summarized, and presented in the research. The findings showed that 1) in terms of the development of western dance education, the component which had remained the same over the observed period of time was learners. On the other hand, the component which had been changed was the dance syllabus. Moreover, the components which had been added were teachers, western dance syllabuses, dance academic subjects, and dance institutes which provided western dance education, 2) in terms of the administration of private dance institutes, a new component was dance competitions. Furthermore, dance performances, class sizes, learning hours, and institutes’ budgets were the components which had been added, and 3) in terms of the application of western dance knowledge to future career of learners, the learning purpose of learners remained the same, which was direct application to dance careers. However, another learning purpose of learners, which was indirect application to other careers, had been added. It was also found that there were 7 factors contributing to the development of dance education. They were 1) trends and values, 2) parents, 3) attitude and behavior, 4) economy, culture, society, and politics, 5) class time, 6) media, and 7) COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Kwankaew Kitcharoen Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0700