Types of Indonesian-English code-switching employed in a novel
This study investigated the types of code-switching between Indonesian and English and vice versa in an Indonesian novel. The code-switching employed in the novel entitled Antologi Rasa (literally translated as ‘The Anthology of Taste’) by Ika Natassa was chosen as the data for this study. The method used was qualitative in nature, with the code-switching being identiﬁed, noted, and ﬁnally analyzed and categorized into the framework developed by Hoffman who proposed four types of code-switching: inter-sentential switching, intra-sentential switching, tag switching, and establishing continuity with the previous speaker. The results showed that the most frequently used code-switching type in the novel was inter-sentential switching (62.3%), followed by intra-sentential switching (20.9%), tag switching (12.4%), and establishing continuity with the previous speaker (4.4%). Inter-sentential was presumed to be used the most because this type of codeswitching signals bilingual proﬁciency and the novel does focus on readers who are adults and live in the metropolitan area. These readers are believed to be ﬂuent speakers of both Indonesian and English. Establishing continuity with the previous speaker was the least frequently used code-switching type in the novel. This type of switching is mostly affected by social distance whereas in the novel, most of the characters had a close relationship with each other, perhaps explaining this low frequency. Finally, further studies on code-switching in written work are suggested, expanding on the current case of a single novel, since the inﬂuence of each language is essential to the signiﬁcance of literary work at large.