Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss <p><strong>Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences</strong> -- formerly <em>Kasetsart Journal - Social Sciences</em> -- is a peer-review journal funded by Kasetsart University, Thailand. It is indexed in <a href="https://scopus.com/">SCOPUS</a>, ASEAN Citation Index (<a href="https://asean-cites.org/">ACI</a>), and Thai-Journal Citation Index (<a href="https://www.kmutt.ac.th/jif/public_html/Download/%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%B7%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B8%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%A11_58.pdf">TCI-G1</a>).</p> <p>Production and hosting by Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute(KURDI) on behalf of Kasetsart University. Peer review under responsibility of Kasetsart University.</p> Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute(KURDI) en-US Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences 2452-3151 Maternal techno-space: Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and the ontological construction of motherhood in Thailand https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260290 <p>For over 30 years, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has been used to meet the needs of married couples experiencing fertility problems in Thai society. The operation of ART compels us to consider the impact of technology on human nature and how it contributes to the construction of motherhood. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new analytical lens for examining the role of ART in the construction of the human body and motherhood from a post-humanistic perspective. The study used a qualitative methodology and drew samples from infertility patients and ART laboratory work. In-depth interviews, field notes, observations and photographs of tools/equipment were used to determine how the technology works in a laboratory setting within a clinic. The study demonstrated that ART is not only a technique for fixing physical defects in humans, but also a techno-space that shapes the human body to facilitate reproduction and motherhood construction. Spatiality, as performed by ART, denaturalizes and technicalizes the body. As a result, the ontological construction of motherhood takes on a spatial dimension and transcends human nature, resulting in what is referred to as techno-maternity.</p> Panipa Suksom Jakkrit Sangkhamanee Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 539–546 539–546 The S-CP2D model: The process of building the intimate relationship among MSM -Men who have an intimate relationship or sexual intercourse with men- within Twitter https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260291 <p>In Thai society, MSM issues are presented in almost every area of mass communication. The challenge for the MSM group is to reveal their identities and build an intimate relationship in an offline space. However, the problem was not framed appropriately according to Thai traditions. As a result, the MSM group has sought to find spaces and communication channels to present their identities and intimate relationships. Most of the research topics are regarding the expression of identities, behaviours, and relationships in a specific space on the internet, but no researches focus on the process and content of the communication for building this intimate relationship in the online area. This is an essential aspect of the exposure and pursuit of friendship from the online to the offline space. Hence, this research aimed to study the process of revealing an intimate relationship through Twitter. The data collection method was Netnography with in-depth interviews with well-known accounts and diverse sexual preference. Then, data were analysed and discussed based on the concept of an intimate relationship. Four levels of building intimate relationships were revealed as the S-CP2D model, which is as follows: (1) Self-Creation; (2) Self- Presentations; (3) Self-Disclosure; and (4) Self-Decision to building or breaking a relationship. Moreover, this research found the development of an intimacy relationship concept in the middle of the online and offline context, which is a result from the change of the current communication channel.</p> Benjarong Tirapalika Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 547–552 547–552 The relationship of work–family conflict, job satisfaction and deviant workplace behavior in the Maldives’ public sector https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260292 <p>This research investigated the relationship between work-family conflict (WFC), job satisfaction and deviant workplace behavior (DWB) in the context of the Maldives’ public sector. Furthermore, the moderating roles of family income and gender were also considered in these relationships. To represent the vastly dispersed population of the Maldives, a two-stage sample scheme was used. In the first stage, 11 regions were randomly selected and in the second stage, 200 public sector employees were proportionally selected from those 11 regions. In the initial phase, the reliability of the scale was tested and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the measurement model was performed. To test direct, indirect and moderating effects, model 17 of the PROCESS macro was used. The results of the study revealed a strong positive relationship between WFC and DWB. Additionally, the roles of gender and family income in the direct relationship between WFC and DWB were significant. The effects of having high or low income were stronger for men than for women. Having a low income had a significant effect on the relationship between WFC and DWB, both among men and women.</p> Hassan Miushad Kalayanee Senasu Montree Piriyakul Roya Ayman Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 553–560 553–560 Development of a purpose in life scale for Thai adolescents: A mixed-method study https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260293 <p>Purpose in life (PIL) is a crucial component of positive youth development. Understanding and promoting PIL requires a suitable assessment tool. This study aimed to develop and test the validity and reliability of the Purpose in Life Scale for Thai Adolescents (PILTA), to support PIL assessment in non-western countries. The study utilized: (1) item generation among 27 students; (2) scale construction among 540 students; and (3) scale evaluation among 2,466 students. Results showed that the PILTA is appropriate to measure adolescents aged 15–19 in the Thai context. The scale comprised 95 questions, categorized into seven components: (1) connectedness to oneself and others; (2)meaning of life; (3) self-worth; (4) goal orientation; (5) self-belief;(6)determination; and (7) gratitude to oneself and others. The model fit-testshowed that the PILTA had a good fit with the observed data (χ2 = 7.83; df = 9;p = .551; Comparative Fit Index = 1.00; the Goodness of Fit Index = .99; theAdjusted Goodness of Fit Index = .98; the Root Mean Square Error ofApproximation = .000; χ2/df = .87). The Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was .92.The PILTA had a significant positive correlation with the Seeking of NoeticGoals Scale and the PIL scale but had a significant negative correlation with theBeck Hopelessness Scale. The development of country norm measurementshowed a normal T-score ranging from T22 to T67. In conclusion, the PILTA isa culturally sensitive assessment of PIL. It adds an explanation of the “process”of assessing PIL.</p> Karnsunaphat Balthip Bunrome Suwanphahu Sasithorn Laimek Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 561–568 561–568 Roles of Buddhist monks in strengthening relationships between Muslims and Buddhists in the three southern border provinces https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260294 <p>This research aimed at investigating the roles of Buddhist monks in strengthening relationships between Muslims and Buddhists in the three southern border provinces by using the qualitative method. Data were collected from the documents and field studies in seven communities by observation. Interviews were conducted with 23 Buddhist monks, 12 governments officials, 31 Buddhists, 35 Muslims. Data triangulation was performed and descriptive analysis was conducted. The results suggested that both Buddhist monks include arrangements of cultural activities in temples in which Muslims participate (provided that the activities are not related to religious ceremonies), educational and religious promotion to Muslims on the monastery property, visitation of followers by inviting Islamic religious leaders to take part in the project with an emphasis on the households having Buddhist and Islamic elders and bedridden patients, and establishment of a rescue unit to help Buddhists and Muslims.</p> Punya Tepsing Kasetchai Laeheem Hasbullah Azizskul Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 569–574 569–574 Local wisdom and strengthening social integration in multiethnic society post-aceh conflict https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260295 <p>The Aceh conflict resulted in ethnic polarization, trauma, and integration problems. Langsa tended to be safer during the Aceh conflict because of the existence of a multiethnic community. This article describes the phenomenon of social integration through local wisdom in the post-conflict Acehnese multicultural community in Langsa. The research argues that the local wisdom of multiethnic communities can build social integration in the post-conflict Aceh community. To prove it, the researcher conducted an ethnographic investigation with observations and local wisdom of multiethnic communitiespractices that strengthen social integration. Data were collected inductively and interpreted by interviewing seven cross-ethnic community leaders plus conducting focus group discussions (FGD) involving four key informants from the adult class and seven youth representatives to provide comprehensive explanations. The data collected were then classified, presented, and conclusions drawn. The research findings showed that local wisdom can encourage cooperation, solidarity, and tolerance to create a post-conflict multiethnic society to live in peace. Local wisdom has succeeded in encouraging the recognition of the fundamental similarities between ethnic groups and eroding differences. Local wisdom can strengthen social resilience and succeed in organically preventing social disasters in post-conflict Acehnese society.</p> Aulia Rahman Wasino Suyahmo Thriwaty Arsal Fitri Amalia Shintasiwi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 575–582 575–582 The development of different types of parks under the urban planning criteria and measures: Case studies of Samutsakhon Municipality and Banphaeo Municipality in Samut Sakhon Province https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260297 <p>This research article aimed to classify parks and propose guidelines for developing parks based on the criteria, standards and measures of urban planning, which is consistent with the development of all park areas in Samutsakhon Municipality and Banphaeo Sub-district Municipality in Samut Sakhon Province. The research tools used were questionnaires (given to 722 people) and interview forms (two representatives of the municipal offices and two urban planning experts). According to the research findings, Samutsakhon Municipality has many types of parks, including pocket parks, community parks, street parks, and special-purpose parks. Further, there are four park areas with open space for recreation and conservation of environmental quality according to the general planning enforcement announcement. As a result, the radius of service for the parks is able to gratify people in the areas thoroughly based on the standards of the Department of Public Works and Town &amp; Country Planning. For park area development in the future, negative measures and incentive measures should be considered to improve the park area management. In Banphaeo Sub-district Municipality, most of the parks are pocket parks; none exceeds 0.0032 square kilometers in size, which cannot be compared with the standards of the Department of Public Works and Town &amp; Country Planning. Moreover, the type of open space used for recreation and environmental conservation has not been found in the general urban planning enforcement announcement. The development of park areas in the future should take into account negative and incentive measures to increase the size of park areas.</p> Putpunnin Khamwachirapithak Waralak Khongouan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 583–590 583–590 A multimodal critical discourse analysis of Ridwan Kamil’s weekly Subuh Berjamaah Instagram posts https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260298 <p>This study analysed Ridwan Kamil’s weekly Subuh Berjamaah (a congregational dawn prayer) Instagram posts. It focused on: (1) describing how he multimodally portrayed himself as a leader; and (2) revealing his leadership ideology in those posts. The posts comprised two different semiotic modes, namely visual images and captions, to communicate the messages and ideas to the followers. In the analysis, the Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis (MCDA) approach was utilised. The results showed that Ridwan Kamil multimodally portrayed himself as an Islamic and tolerant leader, and putting the Islamic values forwards was his leadership ideology found in those posts. His leadership ideology was then able to be socially and cognitively accepted by some followers on Instagram, to build his Islamic identity, and to contribute to his winning in West Java’s Governor Election in 2018.</p> Zakie Asidiky Eva Tuckyta Sari Sujatna Inu Isnaeni Sidiq Nani Darmayanti Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 591–598 591–598 Buddhist compassionate leadership and employee psychological outcomes: The mediating role of trust in leader on Thai financial services employees https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260299 <p>Recent research has frequently demonstrated that leaders’ behaviors hold an important place in organizational management. However, it is questionable whether compassionate leaders contribute to employee psychological outcomes through trust in leader. This study explored the relationships between Buddhist compassionate leadership (BCL), trust in the leader, and employee psychological outcomes from Thai financial institutions (N = 324). The Path analysis results showed that cognitive trust exerted a positive mediating effect in the relationships of BCL with a commitment to a leader, commitment to an organization, and employee creativity. Affective trust positively mediated the relationship between BCL and a commitment to an organization, but negatively mediated between BCL and creativity. The findings suggest that BCL enhances trust in the leader and emphasizes trust as a significant social process that underlies the impact of BCL on Thai employee outcomes.</p> Keemaporn Leesmidt Prapimpa Jarunratanakul Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 599–604 599–604 The possibility of using electronic monitoring devices to supervise drug offenders in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260300 <p>This research aimed: (1) to investigate best practices, problems, and hindrances related to the redirecting of offenders from the justice system applied by other countries; (2) to explore public attitudes towards the use of electronic monitoring devices for developmental approaches; and (3) to propose suggestive approaches for the supervision of offenders using electronic monitoring devices in the EEC to the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Labor. This research applied mixed methods including in-depth interviews with eight key informants. In addition, the researcher collected quantitative data from 1,240 samples available from three provinces: Chonburi, Rayong, and Chachoengsao. The analysis of the quantitative data revealed that the 574 samples in the EEC or 44.11 percent agreed with the application of electronic monitoring devices to the supervision of drug offenders who were drug addicts and dealers possessing heroin or other drugs of less than 20 grams and the employment of drug offenders with minimum wage. The research recommended four approaches for the supervision of defenders using the electronic monitoring system: (1) having offenders work in industrial factories instead of being imprisoned; (2) having offenders who have completed at least one-third imprisonment period wear electronic monitoring devices and allowed to work in an industrial factory instead of imprisonment; (3) carrying on the Correction Industrial Estate Project as piloted in Ban Bueng Temporary Prison, Chonburi, in November 2020; and (4) organizing a one-day working program where imprisoned persons would be allowed to leave for work in the morning and come back in the afternoon.</p> Jomdet Trimek Veraya Aungsuthonthavarin Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 605–610 605–610 Analysis of Thai text from social media for mass customization https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260302 <p>Knowledge extraction from social media data is a crucial problem when the derivatives of Thai text are concerned, such as using the wrong word, miss-spelling, and using various symbols. Due to the speed and competitiveness of business operations and the dynamic change of customer behaviour, extracting the core and optional attributes from customers was the research objective. One solution for supporting mass customization marketing (MC) is to identify the core attributes and optional attributes from customers posted via social media since the customers should express their needs, wants and demand in their message, which led to the factual data. To analyse these data, the principle of Text Mining and Regular Expression was used at the word level. Additionally, conditional probability was used to identify the significant words for supporting MC on the core and optional product components. The samples were collected from 1,400 posted data in the year 2019 from the Facebook fan page of Swensen’s ice cream because the brand is a popular brand, and there are many branches in Thailand. According to the objective, the results showed that the related words to MC production with the conditional probability of the season were as high as 0.66 and 0.48 for summer and winter products, respectively. The core attribute “durian ice cream” had a probability of 0.548, while the optional attributes for ice cream in winter were strawberry and sticky rice in the summer. Finally, the firm can use the findings for supporting product design as customized style.</p> Intaka Piriyakul Rapepun Piriyakul Montree Piriyakul Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 611–618 611–618 Financial literacy and behavioural disposition in retirement saving – A study on employee’s preparedness for a fully defined contributionpension scheme in Malaysia https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260322 <p>MalaysiaAbstractThis paper provides vital results on employee’s preparedness towards government proposal in substituting the traditional pension system for a fully Defined Contribution Retirement scheme. By offering a distinct financial literacy measurement index and extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour analysis, this study found that individuals with higher financial literacy, alongside positive behavioural, normative, and controlled beliefs are more likely to have informed financial decision particularly in retirement savings. Thus, the government and various stakeholders should intensify an advanced financial educational programme, as well as establish more appropriate retirement schemes to increase employee’s financial adequacy and pension benefits.</p> Mat Salleh @ Salleh Wahab Mohd. Rahimie Abd. Karim Thien Sang Lim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 619–628 619–628 The obstacles in the prevention of motor vehicle theft and trafficking in the border area of Kanchanaburi province (Thailand) and prevention guidelines https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260323 <p>&nbsp;This article aimed to examine and analyze the obstacles which the Thai law enforcement agencies have in the prevention of motor vehicle theft and trafficking in the border area of Kanchanaburi province. The results of the research revealed that there were 5 major obstacles. They were the unclear policy at national level, the lack of integrated law enforcement mechanism, the lack of local people’s awareness of motor vehicle theft, the insufficient collaboration between Thailand and Myanmar, and geographical difficulties in the border area. As a result, the Thai authorities could not prevent the smuggling of stolen vehicles in the border area effectively. Furthermore, the lack of an information-sharing system for the relevant law enforcement authorities and the legal loopholes in relation to a vehicle theft conspiracy made the prevention of vehicle theft more difficult. This article proposed 6 resolutions that could overcome the aforementioned obstacles, namely, the installation of CCTVs, public participation, prevention of recidivism, surveillance of potential criminal groups, reduction of chances of becoming victims, and development of human resources to increase the officers’ capabilities to deal with vehicle theft.</p> Tossaporn Pathumya Veenunkarn Rujiprak Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 629–636 629–636 Marketing channels of chili in the Upper Northeastern Region of Thailand https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260324 <p>The number of chili cultivation areas steadily declined from 317,573 to 169,911 rais from 2014–2019; thereby, Thailand almost doubled the value of imported chilis and chili products. This study is helpful to understand better about chili farmers in the upper northeastern region, both their personal and agricultural production factors. Therefore, the researcher intended to identify the channel pattern and the marketing channel selection factors for fresh chilis and processed chilis in the upper northeastern region of Thailand. As a research instrument, 300 questionnaires were distributed to farmers in three provinces. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics by t-test and F-test. The results showed that many respondents were engaged in rice cultivation as their primary occupation and chili cultivation as a secondary source of income. The experience in chili cultivation was more than five years. The factors influencing the selection of marketing channels through intermediaries were convenience, speed of coordination, and buying quantity, at the mean of 4.51, 4.33, and 4.32, respectively. Furthermore, the hypotheses testing indicated a difference in the production factors, such as total production cost and productivity per crop cycle, resulting in the difference of almost all influencing factors towards marketing channel selection. On the other hand, the cultivated size area factor had no statistically significant difference at 0.05, neither overall nor individual factor.</p> Kanyarat Sukhawatthanakun Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 637–644 637–644 Government officers: Do they have a better retirement planning? https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260325 <p>This study examined the retirement planning of Indonesian civil servants (hereafter referred to as Aparatur Sipil Negara, ASN). The behavior of ASNs in preparing financial needs after retiring from government office was investigated in this study. The study found that financial literature plays an important role in ASN’s financial planning. The study also revealed that ASNs who have better financial literature tend to do better in their financial management by having cash and pension budgets. The study finally showed that there is a positive relationship between ASNs’ salary and their behavior to have non-Taspen (non ASN compulsory retirement saving) income. These ASNs are more likely to have a pension plan compared to those with a low salary. ASNs with a higher number of children are more likely to have a better cash budget.</p> Masyhuri Hamidi Fajri Adrianto Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 645–652 645–652 Consumer preferences for pork safety characteristics in Thailand https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260326 <p>The rapidly growing public concern over the safety of pork products in Thailand presents an opportunity for the industry to rearrange its hog farming practices in line with high safety standards to attract a premium. Studies have shown that labelling of safety attributes, including certification for food safety, animal welfare, ractopamine-free production, and country of origin, influences consumers’ food safety or quality perception and willingness to pay a premium. This study estimated the preferences and willingness of Thai consumers to pay for pork products labelled with safety attributes using a choice experiment with a mixed logit model. Of the food safety attributes tested, consumers were most willing to pay a higher premium for ractopamine-free certified pork products, followed by labels on the country of origin, food safety certification, and animal welfare certification.</p> Aerwadee Premashthira Nuttapon Photchanaprasert Santi Sanglestsawai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 653–660 653–660 Consumer rights in ASEAN https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260327 <p>This qualitative research aimed to study the consumer rights of ASEAN countries in order to analyze guideline or recommendations for Thailand to be harmonized with ASEAN legislation and practice appropriately. The doctrinal research includes international consumer rights provided in the United Nations Charter, UN Guidelines for Consumer protection: UNCGP, Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations, ASEAN Economic Community Charter and AEC Blueprint including ASEAN Committee on Consumer Protection: ACCP’s tasks. The result comes across nine international consumer rights, i.e., right to satisfaction of basic needs, right to safety, right to be informed, right to choose, right to be heard, right to redress, right to consumer education, right to healthy &amp; sustainable environment and right to access to public service. Eight ASEAN countries reflect those rights through their legislation either directly or indirectly. Unfortunately, Cambodia and Myanmar lack legislation for the first right to satisfaction of basic needs partly. Burdens found in ASEAN Member States (AMSs) are a shortage of legislation, awareness of consumer rights, services quality, the efficiency of state management in providing necessary services, rights access inequality, law enforcement and online dispute resolution system development. With consideration to the legislation and experiences of international organizations and AMSs, the proposals to Thailand are (1) to set up a one stop service; (2) to set up online dispute resolution system; and (3) to build awareness among consumers and encourage business sectors to have their own redress mechanism.</p> Sareeya Galasintu Apicha Chutipongpisit Chanakant Loveera Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 661–668 661–668 The rural constitution for sustainable Thai rural community development https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260328 <p>A rural constitution is a community rule which has been issued in accordance with the general will and agreement of the local people. Its purpose is to seek the cooperation and participation of community members in solving the problems of the community. This research focused on the development of a rural constitution of the Thai rural community, namely, the Banyang community in Wat Bot district in Phitsanulok province, the Lower Northern Region of Thailand. It aimed to search for the model of rural constitutional process for the sustainable development of Thai rural community. A participatory action research approach was applied within the community to observe and participate in the process of developing the rural constitution. The formation of the rural constitution of Banyang Community was initiated by the local and community leaders and evolved from the village rules and developed to be the accepted rural constitution at the sub-district level. The development and implementation of the rural constitution was supported by the Rural Constitutional Council of Banyang sub-district, which is comprised of the local and community leaders, the representatives from the villages, social groups and local organizations. The important factors that were identified as drivers of the sustainable development of the rural constitution and self-governance of the Banyang community were: strong local and community leaders, and the social awareness by the local people of the community’s problems.</p> Thannapat Jarernpanit Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 669–676 669–676 A tale of two pandemics: Fake news and COVID-19 https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260329 <p>Whilst fake news has been around since the time of Aesop and, COVID-19 has been around for over two millennia less, they joined ranks in 2020. This paper looks at the interface between fake news and governments’ responses to the COVID-19. It compares the approaches of Australia, Singapore and Thailand. Australia relies on a non-legislative approach, where the major digital service providers sign an industry code of practice that must meet the Australian Communications and Media Authority guidelines. As of mid-2021, Twitter, Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Redbubble, TikTok, Adobe, and Apple have signed the industry code of practice. In addition, online advertising that does comply with the requirements of the Therapeutic Drugs Administration can result in sanctions and financial penalties. Australians need to check for the required information on the appropriate government website. Singapore is one of a small number of countries that has specific anti-fake news legislation. Its fact-checking site does not appear to be widely used. Thailand uses its more overarching cybercrime legislation, which does not define fake news. It has developed a comprehensive social media monitoring organization to identify fake news. In addition, it has a website that citizens can check whether news on social media is correct or not. This site has proven extremely popular with several million hits since it commenced operation in late 2019. The paper examines the efficacy of each of the approaches in controlling the twin pandemics.</p> Robert Brian Smith Nucharee Nuchkoom Smith Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 677–682 677–682 Impacts and constraints on implementing e-certification policies in Indonesia https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260330 <p>Electronic certification (e-certification) is an implementation of information technology developed to improve various services, including license issuance, correspondence between agencies, exchange of information, and other public services. In Indonesia, the Electronic Certification Office (ECO) of the National Cyber and Crypto Agency (NCCA) manages e-certification for government agencies. This study aimed to describe the impact and constraints of implementing government policies in e-certification led by ECO. This study adopted the mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sources of qualitative data were collected from informants. This study selected the informants based on their relevant knowledge or experience related to the subject. There were six informants from ECO and other offices in NCCA and four informants from other institutions who participated in the interviews. To support qualitative results, quantitative data and information were obtained from other relevant government agencies. The implementation of the e-certification policy has had positive impacts including, the impact on reducing the counterfeiting of information in digital documents, preventing corruption and bureaucratic efficiency. However, the implementation of these policies also had constraints, including limitation of ECO authority in managing the required resources, insufficient human resources, and responsibility overlapping. This study recommends the need for harmonization and synchronization of e-certification policies with other relevant laws and regulations, the need to strengthen organizational capacity, resources, utilize social media for widening the customer base and improve services according to national standards.</p> Syahrul Mubarak Soesilo Zauhar Suryadi Endah Setyowati Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 683–690 683–690 A causal model of learning outcomes and job ability of Thai university students educated under the communication arts curriculum in digital era https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260333 <p>A causal model of learning outcomes and job ability of Thai university students educated under the Communication Arts curriculum in Digital era was developed. The quantitative data were collected from students studying in year 1 and year 3 of the bachelor’s degree in Communication Arts from Thai universities in the northern, central, northeastern, and southern prefectures. Samples were selected using stratified random sampling technique, and they represented a total of 696 samples from 12 universities. The research instrument was in the form of questionnaire and SEM was used for the analysis to validate the causal model. The exogenous latent variables were: (1) self-efficacy; and (2) teaching quality, and campus experience. The endogenous latent variables were: (1) learning outcomes; (2) job ability; (3) learning motivation; and (4) learning strategies. Results indicated that the hypothetical causal model was consistent with the empirical data with χ2 = 17.501, df = 10, p = 0.064, RMSEA = 0.029, GFI = 0.997, AGFI = 0.973, CFI = 1.00, RMR = 0.004, and SRMR 0.009. Job ability was directly affected by the highest learning outcomes with a positive influence coefficient of 0.49. Self-efficacy had the highest total effect on the job ability, learning outcomes, and learning motivation with a positive influence coefficient of 0.68, 0.57, and 0.71 respectively while learning motivation had the highest total effect on the learning strategy with a positive influence coefficient of 0.73. These causal factors can commonly explain 77.8 percent of variance in job ability and 74.7 percent of variance in learning outcomes.</p> Orn-uma Charoensuk Bubpha Makesrithongkum Kingkaew Subprawong Mayuree Suacamram Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 691–698 691–698 E-Learning implementation in law and civics department:A comprehensive evaluation from students’, teachers’, and parents’perspectives https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260334 <p>A comprehensive evaluation involving teachers, students, and parents is essential to ensure that e-learning is carried out effectively. This is because teachers, students, and parents are very important components in implementing the learning process. Thus, this study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the application of e-learning in the Law and Civics Department, Ganesha University of Education. This research was conducted using the Content Input Process Product (CIPP) evaluation theory. Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to students, lecturers and parents. This study involved 235 students, 235 parents, and 19 lecturers. The researchers analyzed the data quantitatively by using descriptive statistical analysis. The evaluation results showed that the students and lecturers gave positive responses toward the application of e-learning. However, many parents gave negative responses toward e-learning implementation, especially from the process and product aspects. The detailed results of the evaluation from the students’, lecturers’, and parents’ perspectives and the CIPP aspects are discussed in this article.</p> I Gusti Ketut Arya Sunu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 699–706 699–706 Science student teachers’ ability in preparing 5E inquiry-based STEM lessons https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260335 <div>This research aimed to develop science student teachers’ ability to prepare 5E inquiry-based STEM lessons in the science teaching methods course. This approach was proposed as 5E inquiry and STEM activities were integrated in the Elaboration stage. Research participants were 49 science student teachers (SSTs) who were third-year students in the Teacher Education program in Thailand. The research instruments included an inquiry-based STEM lesson assessment form and a semi-structured interview. The lessons were evaluated with an analytical rubric using two raters; inter-rater reliability was 0.82. The results from SSTs’ 5E inquiry-based STEM lessons analysis revealed that 77.55 and 67.35 percent of SSTs were able to identify learning indicators and learning covering STEM disciplines, respectively. More than 73.47 percent were able to design inquiry-based STEM lessons at the good level of the 5E phases. For their STEM activities, 89.80 percent related to big ideas of science content. Furthermore, 81 percent of SSTs responded that they would bring a 5E inquiry-based STEM learning approach into future classrooms. These results illustrate that this approach can be an alternative approach for teaching and learning STEM by using science as the core content for driving the integration of all STEM disciplines.</div> Siriporn Kruatong Nantarat Kruea-In Kulthida Nugultham Tussatrin Wannagatesiri Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 707–714 707–714 The effects of differentiated reading instruction on reading comprehension and self-efficacy of Thai undergraduate students https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260336 <p>&nbsp;This study examined the effects of differentiated reading instruction (DRI) on the reading comprehension and self-efficacy of undergraduate students. The study indicated their improvement in both areas after the intervention. Thirty-three students attending the course of English for Scientists were chosen for the study. The pre-test in reading comprehension and the self efficacy questionnaire were administered before the intervention. The scores of the pre-test of reading comprehension were used to divide the students into two groups according to their level of reading proficiency: lower-proficiency level students and higherproficiency level students. The post-test of reading comprehension and that of self-efficacy was administered after the course to measure the students’ improvement. The content, process and product were tiered to divide the students into two groups. To differentiate the content and process, the materials were tiered according to each group’s reading ability level. Intermediate-level students received the on-level texts while beginner-level students received the simplified texts. Scaffolding was also provided to the students to help their reading according to their proficiency. To differentiate the product or students’ performance, the criteria for assessing students’ presentation were also adjusted to suit the level of the students. The findings showed a significant improvement in both reading comprehension and self-efficacy, with more significant improvement in the lowerlevel proficiency group. Further research should explore how differentiated instruction functions with learners in different contexts and other language skills.</p> Prodpran Cholsakorn Chatraporn Piamsai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 715–720 715–720 The effectiveness of utilizing the productive pedagogies framework as a reflection instrument in teaching and learning of mathematics https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260337 <p>Many students have struggled to comprehend why they were required to study mathematics, which was viewed as a challenging subject. The condition caused by teaching of mathematics has not led to students understanding why they need to study mathematics. In this regard, it is important to enable all students to realize why they study mathematics, then encourage them to learn mathematics with pleasure. Furthermore, the teachers can evaluate how effective their efforts are and reflect on the results of implementing the efforts. This study explored the feasibility of utilizing the Productive Pedagogies framework as a reflection instrument in the teaching of mathematics. Four teacher-participants were included in this action research. Data were collected during the research cycles using classroom observations, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and completed by teaching reflection. The purpose of the study was to examine how teachers managed their mathematics classes by utilizing the elements of the Productive Pedagogical framework. Furthermore, the teachers evaluated their performance and reflected on the achievement of utilizing the framework in their lessons. They then used the results to better prepare for the next lessons. The study concluded that after the teachers utilized the framework in their mathematics teaching, they were able to: promote better teaching by applying different points of view; do self-assessment and reflect on their teaching; and develop peer feedback among their peers. In addition, the teachers used the reflections toward the lessons to help them improve the standard for their upcoming lessons.</p> Suhendra Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 721–726 721–726 Phenomenon-based teaching competency development for teacher educators in higher education in Thailand https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260338 <p>Phenomenon-based learning (PhenoBL) is a successful teaching approach from Finland. The current study focused on PhenoBL training programs for teacher educators in Thailand. The objectives were to: (1) investigate the PhenoBL components, teacher education competency; (2) implement and assess a PhenoBL teaching competency development for teacher educators (PTCD); and (3) assess student teachers’ satisfaction from the teacher educators who attended the training and taught them. PhenoBL training was conducted for 85 teacher educators from three regions of Thailand. Forty-five responded to the online questionnaire that evaluated the PhenoBL training and participant ability to use PhenoBL. Teacher educators were asked to teach using PhenoBL approach and applied knowledge gained from PTCD. Data were collected from three regions of student teachers enrolled in three courses taught by teacher educators who attended the PTCD, and 60 student teachers responded to the satisfaction questionnaire. The results were analyzed using descriptive and one-way ANOVA.</p> Nongluck Manowaluilou Oraphan Butkatunyoo Pongsatorn Mahavijit Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 727–734 727–734 Thematic comic to cultivate eco-literacy for young learners https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260340 <p>This study aimed at developing comics as a learning material to cultivate ecoliteracy for elementary school students. Specifically, this study identified the design of an appropriate comic to cultivate eco-literacy for young learners, the content validity and appropriateness, and the practicality of the comic. The researchers conducted the study by following the 4D research and development model that consisted of defining, designing, developing, and disseminating. The researchers applied various data collection techniques, observation, interview, documentation, questionnaire, and expert judgment. The data analysis was also varied based on the type of data and the objectives of the study. The observation, interview, documentation results were analyzed qualitatively while the results of the questionnaire and expert judgment were analyzed using the mean score and inter-rater agreement model. This study found three significant results. First, the design of the comic should be in line with the curriculum and young learners’ characteristics. Second, the result of the expert judgment sheet showed that the comic was valid in terms of its content validity and it was appropriate for young learners. Third, from its practical perspective, the students enjoyed the learning process using the comic, and there were no problems found during the implementation of the comic for an instructional process.</p> Cholifah Tur Rosidah Ida Bagus Putrayasa I Gede Astra Wesnawa I Made Candiasa Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 735–740 735–740 Learner autonomy amid COVID-19 outbreak: Insights from EFL teachers’ beliefs https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260341 <p>This study aimed to provide insights into English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ beliefs regarding learner autonomy at the Indonesian senior high school level. The study followed a sequential mixed-method that employed questionnaires and interviews for data collection. Eighteen EFL senior high school teachers were recruited to participate in this study. It was found that the EFL teachers showed very positive beliefs toward learner autonomy. They associated learner autonomy with the concept of learners’ initiative and independence to learn without any compulsions from the teacher. While, EFL teachers perceived their learners as less autonomous in learning, they had made some efforts to promote learner autonomy, such as maximizing the use of the internet and existing resources, emphasizing freedom in learning, and motivating learning. However, inadequate school facilities and learners’ low motivation became teachers’ constraints in promoting learner autonomy. Therefore, even though EFL teachers knew the importance of learner autonomy, they could not expect optimum development. This reveals the need for special attention from policymakers regarding learner autonomy in online teaching and learning.</p> Luh Putu Artini Putu Kerti Nitiasih A. A. Istri Sri Wirapatni Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 741–748 741–748 Spiritual work motivation in mediating the influence of organizational climate on teacher performance during the COVID-19 pandemic https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260342 <p>The purpose for this review was to examine the direct influence of organizational climate (OC) on teacher performance (TP) and the indirect effect of OC on TP through spiritual work motivation (SWM), planned as illustrative exploration that expects to give a clarification of the causal connection between factors through speculation testing and to get proper testing in making causal determinations. The example of this study was 180 respondents of Islamic boarding school teachers in the Madura Regency area. The sampling technique used purposive random sampling with the minimum criteria for occupying a homeroom level position. By using the analysis technique of Smart PLS version 3.0, it was found that OC does not have a direct effect on performance, and that OC has an indirect effect on TP through SWM. The after effects of this review are supposed to add new information that will improve the hypothesis of human asset, the executives, and the theory of the behavior of Islamic boarding schools, particularly those connected with TP. Furthermore, it is trusted this new model will assist future examination in focusing on factors that can affect TP.</p> Mirhamida Rahmah Noermijati Noermijati Achmad Sudiro Mintarti Rahayu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 749–754 749–754 Basic pay scale dilemma: Does it reflect discrimination? Case of teaching faculty of Pakistani public sector universities https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260343 <p>This study analyzed the perceptions of Basic Pay Scale (BPS) faculty in Pakistan’s public sector universities. The aim was to question whether the BPS faculty in public sector universities faced discrimination. A quantitative and non-experimental approach was carried out to conduct this survey research. A survey tool having twenty-four items with a Likert scale of five choices ranged between strongly disagree and strongly agree was used for data collection. The data were collected from 384 sample BPS-teachers out of 35,089 BPS-teachers working in the public sector universities. The google-form was developed, and its link was shared in the Whatsapp groups for “All Pakistan Universities BPS Teachers Association” (APUBTA). The missing data were less than three percent. It was found that the BPS faculty has no service structure regarding promotions. The BPS faculty are promoted with a process by adding posts, in which the in-service teachers are put in competition with the entire country, leaving fewer chances for their promotion. In contrast, it was found that, unlike the BPS faculty, the Tenure Track System (TTS) faculty have a welldefined service structure, facing no selection board. On the other hand, the BPS faculty sent to foreign universities under the faculty project cannot apply to other universities as per university statutes. This situation is creating a sense of discrimination among the BPS faculty, affecting universities’ performance. It was suggested that the HEC and the government focus on these issues until they are solved, aiming at better universities’ performance.</p> Niaz Ali Rafia Naz Ali Ghulam Muhammad Muhammad Adnan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 755–762 755–762 Strengthening civic education through project citizen as an incubator for democracy education https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260344 <p>This article sought to describe the contribution of project citizens in civic education as an incubator for democratic education. Therefore, previous studies have only mentioned civic education as learning democracy but have not stated how much it contributes. Data collection was carried out using a quantitative approach through a survey method. The research population was students of the Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia enrolled for civic education course. The research sample was 10 (ten) study programs with 432 students. The results showed that the effect of project citizen-based civic education on strengthening student democracy education was 38.2 percent.</p> Dadang Sundawa Asep Dahliyana Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 763–768 763–768 The efficiency of an evaluation model for undergraduate vocational education programs: An application of multiple evaluation approaches https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260345 <p>This research aimed to assess the efficiency of an evaluation model for undergraduate vocational education programs, which was developed from the application of multiple evaluation approaches. There were three-evaluation approaches, namely: (1) Utilization-focused evaluation; (2) CIPIEST evaluation model; and (3) Discrepancy evaluation model. The evaluation was tested in two different courses: (1) a Bachelor of Technology Program in Electrical Technology; and (2) a Bachelor of Technology Program in Office Management. The sample was of 12-curriculum evaluation committee members from both programs. An evaluation form of the program evaluation model and focus groups records were used as the research instruments for the data collection. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results found that according to the components and evaluation indicators as required, both programs were completed. Five standards for the efficiency of the evaluation model were: (1) utility standards; (2) feasibility standards; (3) propriety standards; (4) accuracy standards; and (5) evaluation accountability standards. The results indicated that the most effective standard was utility standards, corresponding with the opinions of the committee from the focus group meetings.</p> Angwara Wongrugsa Sirichai Kanjanawasee Sirirak Ratchusanti Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 769–776 769–776 Development of the self-awareness scale for secondary school students https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260346 <p>&nbsp;This research aimed to explore the quality, develop scoring criteria for the selfawareness scale, and develop a manual for the use of the self-awareness scale for secondary school students. Participants consisted of 966 secondary school students. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). To analyze the qualitative data, content analysis was performed. The results were as follows: (1) The self-awareness scale consisted of 3 components: emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence, consisting of 30 items. The item discrimination power ranged between 0.205 and 0.645. The construct validity using an empirical approach found that the model was consistent with the empirical data. The total score for each component was significantly related to the total score at the .05 level, the correlation coefficients were 0.845, 0.876, 0.895, and the reliability was 0.963; (2) For the norms of the self-awareness scale for secondary school students, the T-scores were in the range of 19.34 to 76.69; and (3) The manual for the use of the self-awareness scale for secondary school students contains the objectives, structure, characteristics, and quality of the scale, time required for the test, test procedures, scoring instructions, and scoring criteria. The instructions are clear and understandable. Teachers can use the manual to arrange tests in actual conditions. Self-awareness scale instrument to measure self-awareness has strong internal consistency reliability.</p> Chanida Mitranun Ujsara Prasertsin Kwanjai Ritkumrop Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 777–782 777–782 Generation Z teachers’ quality of work life: Measurement and enhancement guidelines https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260347 <p>Quality of work life (QWL) is a critical issue for organizations in the education sector for recruiting and retaining qualified young teachers. This study aimed to develop an empirical construct for teachers’ QWL and to develop a guideline to enhance the engagement and work-life balance of Generation Z teachers (Gen Z). This study used a sequential exploratory mixed-method paradigm. The samples were: 12 key informants for a face-to-face interview and 12 key informants, who were policymakers in charge of teacher welfare, for focus group discussion, directors and deputy directors from public schools, Gen X-Gen Y and Gen Z teachers from public schools; 400 Gen Z teachers from public schools. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and content analysis were used for the data analysis. The QWL of Gen Z teachers is made up of organizational culture and climate, relation and cooperation, training and development, wages, rewards and fairness, work condition, workspace, and facilities. Furthermore, the results of this study provided guidelines for enhancing QWL to improve teacher engagement, maximize the utilization of young teachers, and gain a sustainable competitive advantage in education.</p> Aree Sathianwatchai Poschanan Niramitchainont Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 783–788 783–788 Using music activities to develop music skills, behavior and personality of the elderly in the Thonburi District of Thailand https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/kjss/article/view/260348 <p>This study aims to design and create music activities by applying the guidelines for children education to develop the music skills, behavior, and personality of the elderly in the Thonburi district of Thailand and to determine the effectiveness of such activities. It also focuses on achievement among the elderly following these activities The results showed that participants’ achievement during and after participation in behavioral and personality activities which encompasses emotions and feelings, participation in the activities, assertiveness, muscle function, sight, and memory resulted in an average assessment score of 86.99 percent out of 95 percent , and their average assessment score for music skills which includes listening, singing, and movement skill; improvisation; and music expression development was 83.62 percent out of 92.33 percent. The mean score of behavior, personality, and music skills averaged 85.32 percent out of 93.66 percent, and the average achievement assessment score was 87.99 percent The results obtained from the use of music activities, which involved applying the music teaching technique for children into the different activities, showed achievement for the participants. The music teaching technique for the elderly involves teaching from an easier to harder level. Physical and mental movement is also utilized to develop the individual’s behavior and personality. Furthermore, the contents from the activities lead participants to develop their basic music skills, which also leads to the achievement of music skills. The participants could continue to improve their music skills after reaching a higher level.</p> Natsarun Tissadikun Panus Tongkarnpanich Warinthorn Srisiadngam Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-27 2022-07-27 43 3 789 796