Archaeological Conservation of Bagan Ancient Monuments in Myanmar
Bagan covers an area of about 45 - square kilometers along the eastern bank of the Ayeyarwaddy River. The total numbers of Bagan Buddhist monuments were 4446 in the Bagan period. A number of the monuments at Bagan had been destroyed by natural disasters, vandalism, and age. Now there are 3822 monuments of various sizes still standing in Bagan. Conservation, restoration, renovation and rehabilitation works of the ancient monuments at Bagan in Myanmar with the inscriptional evidences have been undertaken from the Bagan period onwards. Archaeological Conservation works have been started during the colonial times. Archaeological Conservation on Bagan monuments carried by the Department of Archaeology and National Museum were identified that are consolidation of walls, strengthening with RCC belts, grouting cracks, binding with steel rods, waterproofing on roofs and terraces, inserting tie beams around the terraces, propping inclining walls with temporary steel structures or other materials, pointing, edging and re-plastering, replacement of brick/stone masonry work, improving drainage and landscaping and chemical conservation of the artistic works on ancient monuments. The 2016 earthquake resulted in the removal of many interventions undertaken in 1996-2012. After the earthquake occurred in 2016, it was proved that the monuments which have been repaired and strengthened suffer no structural damage with some slide damage on nonstructural elements. The monuments which have been repaired and partially strengthened suffer structural damage on not strengthened parts. The monuments which have been only repaired generally suffer more damage with some partially collapse. So the repair and strengthening works should be obligations in the process of rehabilitation, conservations and protections of the ancient monuments.