Cybersecurity risks and customers’ Protective Behaviour on Usage of Mobile Banking Services: Evidence from Selected Banks in Tanzania


  • Emmanuel Mkilia cybersecurity in banking and microfinance
  • Jones T. Kaleshu Department of Banking Accounting and Finance - Moshi Co-operative University (MoCU)
  • Alfred S. Sife Department of Knowledge Management – Moshi Co-operative University (MoCU)


Cyber-security, mobile banking, self- efficacy, protective behaviour, risk appraisal.


Cybersecurity threats rise as more people use mobile applications to access their bank accounts. This study examined customer’s protection motivation on cybersecurity risks and  usage of mobile banking services in Tanzania. A survey of 478 commercial bank customers was conducted using questionnaire and key informant interviews. The relationship between mobile bank customers' protection motivation  of cybersecurity and how it effects their use of mobile banking services was analysed  using smart partial least squares structural equation model software. The results indicate that perceived threat, perceived severity, data confidentiality, self-efficacy, and cybersecurity awareness have significant influences to mobile banking customers on use of mobile banking services. The results  of the study are in line with Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) because of the fact that five out of  seven constructs derived from risk appraisal and coping appraisal were found to influence use of mobile banking services. The study concludes that protective behavior on usage of mobile banking services by customers depends on cybersesecurity threat appraisal and copping appraisal.  However, perceived susceptibility and perceived integrity had no effect. It is recommended that banks should make an investment in educating users about the mobile banking service by providing guidance and information, which will lessen the impact of cybersecurity concerns.


Abdullah, F., & Ward, R. (2016). Developing a general extended technology acceptance model for e-learning (GETAMEL) by analysing commonly used external factors. Computers in Human Behaviour, 56, 238 – 256.

Alotaibi, F., Furnell, S., Stengel, I., & Papadaki, M. (2016, December). A survey of cyber-security awareness in Saudi Arabia. In 2016 International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST) (pp. 154-158). IEEE.

Awan, J. H., Memon, S., Khan, R. A., Noonari, A. Q., Hussain, Z., & Usman, M. (2017). Security strategies to overcome cyber measures, factors and barriers. Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. Res. J, 1(1), 51-58.

Alexandrou, Alex, and Li-Chiou Chen. (2019): "A security risk perception model for the adoption of mobile devices in the healthcare industry." Security Journal, 32(4), 410-434.

Akinyede, R. O., & Esese, O. A. (2017). Development of a secure mobile e-banking system. International Journal of Computer (IJC), 26(1), 23-42.

Bank of Tanzania. (2020). The directory of Banks and Financial Institutions Operating in Tanzania. Tanzania: Bank of Tanzania

Chawla, D., & Joshi, H. (2017). Consumer perspectives about mobile banking adoption in India–a cluster analysis. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 35(4), 558-582.

Chang, S. H., Hsu, H. M., Li, Y., & Hsu, J. S. C. (2018). The influence of information security stress on security policy compliance: a protection motivation theory perspective. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS)

Choudrie, J., Junior, C. O., McKenna, B., & Richter, S. (2018). Understanding and conceptualizing the adoption, use and diffusion of mobile banking in older adults: A research agenda and conceptual framework. Journal of Business Research, 88, 449-465.

Cudjoe, A. G., Anim, P. A., & Nyanyofio, J. G. N. T. (2015). Determinants of mobile banking adoption in the Ghanaian banking industry: a case of access bank Ghana limited. Journal of Computer and Communications, 3(02), 11-18.

Dijkstra, T.K. and Henseler, J. (2015), “Consistent partial least squares path modeling”, MIS Quarterly 39(2), 297-316.

Farah, M. F., Hasni, M. J. S., & Abbas, A. K. (2018). Mobile-banking adoption: empirical evidence from the banking sector in Pakistan. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 36(7), 1386-1413.

Fin Scope Tanzania. (2017), Insights that drive innovations. Tanzania: Mimeo.

Foroughi, B., Iranmanesh, M., & Hyun, S. S. (2019). Understanding the determinants of mobile banking continuance usage intention. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 32(6), 1015-1033

Eastin, M. S., Brinson, N. H., Doorey, A., & Wilcox, G. (2016). Living in a big data world: Predicting mobile commerce activity through privacy concerns. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 214-220.

Hajian, S., Shariati, M., Mirzaii Najmabadi, K., Yunesian, M., & Ajami, M. I. (2015). Use of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to Predict Iranian Women’s Intention for Vaginal Delivery. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(3), 234-243.

Hair, J.F., Risher, J.J., Sarstedt, M. and Ringle, C.M. (2019), "When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM", European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24.

He, W., Tian, X., & Shen, J. (2015). Examining Security Risks of Mobile Banking Applications through Blog Mining. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 103-108.

Jansen, J., & Van Schaik, P. (2018). Testing a model of precautionary online behaviour: The case of online banking. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 87, 371-383.

Jibril, A. B., Kwarteng, M. A., Chovancova, M., & Denanyoh, R. (2020, March). Customers’ perception of cybersecurity threats toward e-banking adoption and retention: A conceptual study. In ICCWS 2020 15th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (Vol. 270). Academic Conferences and publishing limited.

Johnson, V. L., Kiser, A., Washington, R., & Torres, R. (2018). Limitations to the rapid adoption of M-payment services: Understanding the impact of privacy risk on M-Payment services. Computers in Human Behavior, 79, 111-122.

Kamdjoug, J. R. K., Wamba-Taguimdje, S. L., Wamba, S. F., & Kake, I. B. E. (2021). Determining factors and impacts of the intention to adopt mobile banking app in Cameroon: Case of SARA by afriland First Bank. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service, 61, 102-509.

Khedmatgozar, H. R., & Shahnazi, A. (2018). The role of dimensions of perceived risk in adoption of corporate internet banking by customers in Iran. Electronic Commerce Research, 18(2), 389-412.

Kessy, S. S. (2021). Adoption of Internet Banking Service in Tanzania. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal, 16(1), 84-97.

Lee, I. (2020). Internet of Things (IoT) cybersecurity: Literature review and IoT cyber risk management. Future Internet, 12(9), 157.

Li, L., He, W., Xu, L., Ash, I., Anwar, M., & Yuan, X. (2019). Investigating the impact of cybersecurity policy awareness on employees’ cybersecurity behavior. International Journal of Information Management, 45, 13-24.

Lin, T. T., & Bautista, J. R. (2016). Predicting intention to take protective measures during haze: The roles of efficacy, threat, media trust, and affective attitude. Journal of health communication, 21(7), 790-799.

Limna, P., Kraiwanit, T., Siripipattanakul, S., Limna, P., Kraiwanit, T., & Siripipattanakul, S. (2023). The Relationship between Cyber Security Knowledge, Awareness and Behavioural Choice Protection among Mobile Banking Users in Thailand. International Journal of Computing Sciences Research, 7, 1133-1151.

Lawson, S. T., Yeo, S. K., Yu, H., & Greene, E. (2016). The cyber-doom effect: The impact of fear appeals in the US cyber security debate. In International Conference on Cyber Conflict 8: 65-80.

Mai, P. T., & Tick, A. (2021). Cyber Security Awareness and behavior of youth in smartphone usage: A comparative study between university students in Hungary and Vietnam. Acta Polytech. Hung 18, 67-89.

Marafon, D.L., Basso, K., Espartel, L.B., de Barcellos, M.D. and Rech, E. (2018), "Perceived risk and intention to use internet banking: The effects of self-confidence and risk acceptance", International Journal of Bank Marketing, 36(2), 277-289.

Makanyeza, C. (2017). Determinants of consumers’ intention to adopt mobile banking services in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 35(6), 997-1017.

Mbanaso, U. M., Abrahams, L., & Apene, O. Z. (2019). Conceptual design of a cybersecurity resilience maturity measurement (CRMM) framework. The African Journal of Information and Communication, 23, 1-26.

Menard, P., Bott, G. J., & Crossler, R. E. (2017). User motivations in protecting information security: Protection motivation theory versus self-determination theory. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(4), 1203-1230.

Merhi, M., Hone, K., & Tarhini, A. (2019). A cross-cultural study of the intention to use mobile banking between Lebanese and British consumers: Extending UTAUT2 with security, privacy and trust. Technology in Society Vol 59, 101-151.

Mettouris, C., Maratou, V., Vuckovic, D., Papadopoulos, G. A., & Xenos, M. (2015). Information Security Awareness through a Virtual World: An end-user requirements analysis. In 5th International Conference on Information Society and Technology, ICIST2015. pp. 273-278

Mugari, I., Gona, S., Maunga, M., & Chiyambiro, R. (2016). Cybercrime-the emerging threat to the financial services sector in Zimbabwe. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,7(3), 135-142.

Nam, T. (2019). Understanding the gap between perceived threats to and preparedness for cybersecurity. Technology in society, 58, 101-122.

Nambiro, A., Wabwoba, F., & Wasike, J. (2020). Cyber security challenges to mobile banking in SACCOs in Kenya. International Journal of Computer (IJC), 27(1), 133-140

Normalini, M. K., Ramayah, T., & Shabbir, M. S. (2019). Investigating the impact of security factors in E-business and internet banking usage intention among Malaysians. Industrial Engineering & Management Systems, 18(3), 501-510

Nyongesa, M. K., Mwangi, P., Koot, H. M., Cuijpers, P., Newton, C. R., & Abubakar, A. (2020). The reliability, validity and factorial structure of the Swahili version of the 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) among adults living with HIV from Kilifi, Kenya. Annals of general psychiatry, 19(1), 1-10.

Rahi, S., Ghani, M. A., & Ngah, A. H. (2020). Factors propelling the adoption of internet banking: the role of e-customer service, website design, brand image and customer satisfaction. International Journal of Business Information Systems, 33(4), 549-569.

Salim, A. M. (2020). Exploring Customers' Perception on Adoption and Use of Electronic Banking Services in Tanzania Commercial Banks. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 30(2), 477-486.

Semboja, H. H., Silla, B. S., & Musuguri, J. N. (2017). Cyber Security Institutional Framework in Tanzania: A policy Analysis. Gsj 5(6), 13-28

Serianu. (2017). Tanzania cyber security report 2017: Demystifying Africa’s cyber security poverty line. Retrieved from pdf

Shaju, S., & Panchami, V. (2016). BISC authentication algorithm: An efficient new authentication algorithm using three factor authentications for mobile banking. In 2016 Online International Conference on Green Engineering and Technologies (IC-GET): IEEE. pp. 1-5.

Singh, Sindhu. and Srivastava, R.K. (2018), "Predicting the intention to use mobile banking in India", International Journal of Bank Marketing, 36(2), 357-378.

Si Dah, N., Siripipatthanakul, S., Phayaphrom, B., & Limna, P. (2022). Determinants of Employee Innovation: A Case of NGOs and CSOs in Mae Sot, Thai-Myanmar Border. International Journal of Behavioral Analytics, 2(1), 1-15.

Stewart, H. and Jürjens, J. (2018), "Data security and consumer trust in Fin Tech innovation in Germany", Information and Computer Security, 26(1), 109-128.

Tanzania Banking Overview Sector, Review report of 2020. Bank of Tanzania

Tariq, N. (2018). Impact of cyberattacks on financial institutions. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 23(2), 1-11.

Towbin, R. S. (2019). A protection motivation theory approach to healthcare cybersecurity: A multiple case study (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University). Performance: The Case of Europe. Procedia. Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol 195, 363–368.

Tsai, H. Y. S., Jiang, M., Alhabash, S., LaRose, R., Rifon, N. J., & Cotten, S. R. (2016). Understanding online safety behaviors: A protection motivation theory perspective. Computers & Security, Vol 59, 138-150.

van Bavel, R., Rodríguez-Priego, N., Vila, J., & Briggs, P. (2019). Using protection motivation theory in the design of nudges to improve online security behavior. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 123, 29-39.

Verkijika, S. F. (2018). Understanding smartphone security behaviors: An extension of the protection motivation theory with anticipated regret. Computers & Security, 77, 860-870.

Wang, T., Duong, T. D., & Chen, C. C. (2016). Intention to disclose personal information via mobile applications: A privacy calculus perspective. International journal of information management, 36(4), 531-542.

Wambalaba, F., Musuva, P., Ouma, M. J., & Nicos, K. (2021). Cybersecurity Risk Minimization Best Practices-African Experiences, 1, 1-42

Wazid, M., Zeadally, S., & Das, A. K. (2019). Mobile banking: evolution and threats: malware threats and security solutions. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 8(2), 56-60.

Wyre, M., Lacey, D., & Allan, K. (2020). The identity theft response system. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Vol. 592, 1-18.

Wu, D. (2020). Empirical study of knowledge withholding in cyberspace: Integrating protection motivation theory and theory of reasoned behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 105, 106-229.

Zwilling, M., Klien, G., Lesjak, D., Wiechetek, Ł., Cetin, F., & Basim, H. N. (2022). Cyber security awareness, knowledge and behavior: a comparative study. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 62(1), 82-97.




How to Cite

Mkilia, E., Kaleshu , J. T. ., & Sife , A. S. . (2023). Cybersecurity risks and customers’ Protective Behaviour on Usage of Mobile Banking Services: Evidence from Selected Banks in Tanzania. Local Administration Journal, 16(3), 329–355. Retrieved from