Impact of Developments on Air Quality

Main Article Content

Sunti Tirapat


Understanding the effects of economic and social development on air quality is of importance. This study investigated whether the association between provincial developments and air quality in Thailand was consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Based on the provincial panel data of PM2.5 and PM10 during 2012–2021, the overall results indicated a non-linear "inverted U" curve, which was in line with the Environmental Kuznets Curve. This suggested that as provincial income increases, PM10 levels initially rise, but after reaching a certain threshold, they start to decline. On the other hand, no such relationship was found between PM2.5 levels and provincial income during the same period. The study also documents a positive association between the number of factories, gasoline usage, and population density with provincial air pollution that there was a positive association between the number of factories, gasoline usage, and population density with provincial air pollution. On the other hand, agricultural debt and household expenditures display a negative relationship with air pollution. Surprisingly, the number of temples also showed a positive impact on air pollution levels. Based on the preliminary findings, it appeared that provincial air pollution was primarily linked to the industrial sector rather than agriculture. More importantly, the finding that PM2.5 did not follow the Environmental Kuznets Curve holds significant policy implications for development strategies. Merely relying solely on income growth will not eventually resolve the pollution issue. Therefore, policymakers should incorporate this finding into their strategies for achieving a sustainable future.

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How to Cite
Tirapat, S. (2023). Impact of Developments on Air Quality. Journal of Multidisciplinary in Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(6), 2939–2964. Retrieved from
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