Phonetic and Phonological Description of Affricates in Pāli – Sanskrit

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Sitthiches Chenruay
Sanit Sinak
Anchanida Wankong
Phramaha Anukul Ngaongam


Affricates are the problematic sounds in phonetics and phonology to define whether they are single segments, bisegmentals, or clusters. This article aimed to study the phonetic and phonological description of affricates in Pali Sanskrit in three fields of study such as articulatory, acoustic, and auditory phonetics with the discussion of linguists to categorize the affricate class by phonological theories such as formal distinctive feature and autosegmental with the case study of Pāli – Sanskrit sound change. The main findings were affricates produced by constriction and release with two distinctive features: stop and fricative. According to SPE, it is classified as [+continuant] [+strident]. In Pāli – Sanskrit, it is frequently found the palatalization assimilation from the cluster of dental stops together with post-alveolar approximant [j] that leads to the feature of stop with the release sound of fricative. 

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Chenruay, S., Sinak, S., Wankong, A., & Ngaongam, P. A. (2023). Phonetic and Phonological Description of Affricates in Pāli – Sanskrit. Journal of Multidisciplinary in Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(6), 3438–3460. Retrieved from
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