Thai Expatriates’ Perspectives of Service Quality in Alternative State Quarantine (ASQ) Hotel


  • Thareethip Laowirojanakul Assistant Professor, School of Hotel and Culinary Business Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Dhurakij Pundit University
  • Phitak Siriwong Associate Professor Dr., Marketing Program Faculty of Management Science Silpakorn University



Alternative State Quarantine (ASQ), Thai expatriate, Service quality


The purpose of this research was to 1) study managerial concepts of alternative state quarantine (ASQ) hotels regarding good service quality from the viewpoint of Thais living abroad before returning to Thailand and 2) develop a grounded theory of ASQ hotels’ service quality from the viewpoint of Thais living abroad. This is a qualitative study to derive a theoretical conclusion from the experience of Thai nationals living overseas who had previously stayed at ASQ hotels. The researcher chose purposive sampling techniques and collected data by using in-depth interviews, documentary studies, observation, and note-taking in March 2021. The key informants were 16 Thais who had lived abroad for a year and visited Thailand at least once. The study showed that the service quality of ASQ hotels consists of 10 dimensions; 1) Hotel 2) Hotel’s product 3) Health 4) Wellness 5) Hotel’s guestroom 6) Hospitality 7) Hygiene 8) Hi-technology 9) High safety and 10) Host. In addition, it appeared that these 10 elements can be classified based on four dimensions; assurance, trustworthiness, responsiveness, and customer insight, which are recommended for the hotel business to reach the expected service quality for Thais. This includes meeting their expectations for both tangible and intangible services. Moreover, ASQ hotel service quality was found to correlate with customer’s expectations, perceptions of service quality, satisfaction and decision-making. Finally, it is concluded that the higher overall service quality perceived by Thais, the more likely they are to be satisfied and consequently recommend the hotels’ hospitality services.


Alhelalat, J. A., & Ma’moun, A. H. (2017). A model of service quality aspects conveyed in hotel advertising. Enlightening Tourism. A Pathmaking Journal, 7(2), 99-124.

Andresen, M., Bergdolt, F., Margenfeld, J., & Dickmann, M. (2014). Addressing international mobility confusion–developing definitions and differentiations for self-initiated and assigned expatriates as well as migrants. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(16), 2295-2318.

Andresen, M., Biemann, T., & Pattie, M. W. (2015). What makes them move abroad? Reviewing and exploring differences between self-initiated and assigned expatriation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(7), 932-947.

Ciftci, O., Berezina, K., Cavusoglu,M., & Cobanoglu, C. (2020). Winning the battle: The importance of price and online reviews for hotel selection. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), 8(1), 177-202.

Cleveland, H., Mangone, G. J., & Adams, J. C. (1980). The Overseas Americans. The International Executive, 2(3), 5-6.

Collins Dictionaries. (2011). Collins English Dictionary. Collins.

Copeland, L., Griggs, L., & Copeland, J. (1985). Going international: How to make friends and deal effectively in the global marketplace. New York: Random House Incorporated.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage publications.

Department of Consular Affairs. (2020, September 23). The statistics of the Thai population abroad. Retrieved from kō̜ng_0302/ čhamnūan Khon Thai nai tāngprathēt_ pī_2563.jpg.

Dickmann, M., Doherty, N., Mills, T., & Brewster, C. (2008). Why do they go? Individual and corporate perspectives on the factors influencing the decision to accept an international assignment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(4), 731-751.

Donnelly, M., Shiu, E., Dalrymple, J. F., & Wisniewski, M. (1996). Adapting the SERVQUAL scale and approach to meet the needs of local authority services. Total quality management in action, 263-266.

Dotchin, J. A., & Oakland, J. S. (1994). Total quality management in services: Part 2: Service quality. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 11(3), 27-42.

Fareed, Z., Iqbal, N., Shahzad, F., Shah, S. G. M., Zulfiqar, B., Shahzad, K., & Shahzad, U. (2020). Co-variance nexus between COVID-19 mortality, humidity, and air quality index in Wuhan, China: new insights from partial and multiple wavelet coherence. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 13(6), 673-682.

Fechter, A. M. (2007). Transnational lives: Expatriates in Indonesia. UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Fjällman, A. (2020, March 26). The State of the Global Hospitality Industry Following COVID-19 and What Hoteliers Can Do Now. Atomize. Retrieved from

Forte, A., Trobia, F., Gualtieri, F., Lamis, D. A., Cardamone, G., Giallonardo, V., & Pompili, M. (2018). Suicide risk among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a literature overview. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7), 1438.

Ghobadian, A., Speller, S., & Jones, M. (1994). Service quality: concepts and models. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 11(9), 1-2.

Glaser, G., & Strauss Anselm, L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. New York, Adline de Gruyter, 17(4), 364.

Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field methods, 18(1), 59-82.

Harvey, W. S. (2009). British and Indian scientists in Boston considering returning to their home countries. Population, space and place, 15(6), 493-508.

Hippler, T. (2009). Why do they go? Empirical evidence of employees' motives for seeking or accepting relocation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(6), 1381-1401.

Koveshnikov, A., Lehtonen, M. J., & Wechtler, H. (2022). Expatriates on the run: The psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on expatriates’ host country withdrawal intentions. International Business Review, 102009.

Lai, I. K. W., & Hitchcock, M. (2016). A comparison of service quality attributes for stand-alone and resort-based luxury hotels in Macau: 3-Dimensional importance-performance analysis. Tourism Management, 55, 139-159. 01.007.

Lay, T. H. (1925). The Foreign Service of the United States. New York: Prentice Hall Inc.

Medabesh, D., Ali Khan, D., & Faisal, S. M. (2021). Travelers Satisfaction at COVID-19 Quarantine Centers in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 27(2), 1166-1182.

Malik, M., Al-Salahmi, S. M. K., Al-Kamiyani, N. K. N., & Al-Habsi, G. H. H. (2020). Tourist satisfaction with heritage site attributes in the Sultanate of Oman. Enlightening Tourism. A Pathmaking Journal, 10(1), 28-57.

Nookur, K. (2022). A, The “Unusual situation” Special issue on a day: The Recording of Events of Thai Society in 2020. Liberal Arts Review, 17(2), 222-242.

Overseas Employment Administration Division. (2020). Income of Thais abroad remitted through the Bank of Thailand. Retrieved from overseas_th/1bebb644d0a6b361db98b4482f200519.pdf.

Oxford Dictionary of English. (2015). Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, C. (2004). The analysis of semi-structured interviews. A Companion to Qualitative Research, 253(41), 258.

Selmer, J., & Lauring, J. (2011). Acquired demographics and reasons to relocate among self-initiated expatriates. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(10), 2055-2070.

Taki, T. (2021). Nostalgia Tourism Factors Affecting on Thailand Revisit Intention of Thai Expatriates during COVID-19 Pandemic. Dusit Thani College Journal. 15(3), 102-115.

TAT news. (2021). Thailand reduces quarantine period for international arrivals from 1 October 2021. Retrieved from

Toren, N. (1976). Return to Zion: characteristics and motivations of returning emigrants. Social Forces, 54(3), 546-558.

Wang, Y., Vela, M. R., & Tyler, K. (2008). Cultural perspectives: Chinese perceptions of UK hotel service quality. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2(4), 313.

Welthagen, L., & Lötter, M. J. (2020). Comparing the Satisfaction Level of Park Acoustics Live Music Festival Attendees’. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 9(4), 534-546.

Yang, Y., Zhang, H., & Chen, X. (2020). Coronavirus pandemic and tourism: Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling of infectious disease outbreak. Annals of Tourism Research, 83.

Yilmaz, E. S. (2020). The effects on consumer behavior of hotel-related comments on the Tripadvisor website: An Istanbul case. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), 8(1), 1-29.

Yuliantoro, N., Goeltom, V., Juliana, I. B., Pramono, R., & Purwanto, A. (2019). Repurchase intention and word of mouth factors in the millennial generation against various brands of Boba drinks during the Covid-19 pandemic. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(2), 1-11.

Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31-46.




How to Cite

Laowirojanakul, T. ., & Siriwong, P. . (2023). Thai Expatriates’ Perspectives of Service Quality in Alternative State Quarantine (ASQ) Hotel. Academic and Research Journal of Liberal Arts (Online), 18(2), 1–17.



Research Articles