The Mediation Effect of Sustainability on the Relationship among Product Design and Manufacturing Cost of OTOPs Entrepreneur on Customer Satisfaction

Main Article Content

Kritchai Khowjoy
Wilaiporn Wongin
Winyu Phunto


This article aimed to (1) study the product design's impact on customer satisfaction through the sustainability and manufacturing costs of OTOPs entrepreneurs and (2) develop and validate a causal relationship model. This study was quantitative research. The population was 5 stars for OTOP manufacturers in Thailand. The research used 600 questionnaires to collect data. The researcher collected data through purposive sampling and stratified sampling. Statistical analysis used descriptive statistics analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation model analysis.

The results of this research were: (1) the development of the causal relationship models consisted of 5 components: 1) product design; 2) manufacturing cost; 3) sustainability; and 4) customer satisfaction, and the model was consistent with the empirical data. The statistics showed CFI = 0.927, NFI = 0.901, TLI = 0.918, IFI = 0.927, and RMR = 0.037. The final predictive coefficient was 0.48, indicating that the variables in the model can explain the variance of customer satisfaction by 48 percent., and (2) the product design had a significant, positive indirect effect on customer satisfaction through manufacturing cost and sustainability. The finding of the research is that product design for sustainable customer satisfaction can be determined by aesthetics, circular economy, consumption of resources, cost, customer requirement, distribution, environment, material selected, performance function, and price.

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Khowjoy, K., Wongin, W., & Phunto, W. (2024). The Mediation Effect of Sustainability on the Relationship among Product Design and Manufacturing Cost of OTOPs Entrepreneur on Customer Satisfaction. Journal of Multidisciplinary in Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(2), 824–844. Retrieved from
Research Articles


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