Development of learning and innovation skills assessment criteria for upper secondary school students: A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis using mixed-method design

  • Pattrawadee Makmee Cognitive Science and Innovative Research Unit (CSIRU), College of Research Methodology and Cognitive Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
Keywords: assessment criteria development, learning and innovation skills, multilevel confirmatory factor analysis, multilevel mixed-method design


This research aimed to analyze multilevel confirmatory factors and develop learning and innovation skills assessment criteria by using a multilevel mixed-method design. Six hundred upper secondary school students derived from multi-stage random sampling for quantitative study were analyzed, and 13 experts from purposive sampling were interviewed by an in-depth interview technique. Questionnaires on learning and innovation skills were distributed to the students in 60 schools around Thailand. The results of this study showed: (1) the multilevel confirmatory factor analysis model; consisted of five factors namely critical thinking, effective communication, quantitative and scientific reasoning, technological competency and information, and responsible citizenship; was consistent with the empirical data, and (2) learning and innovation skills assessment criteria for upper secondary school students consisted of 21 indicators and 21 assessment criteria and were in outstanding level, both student and school level.


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