The Potential to Reduce Hotels Carbon Footprint by Using Solar Energy: A Case Study of Small Hotels in Nan Province

Main Article Content

Pisitpong Tuntimas
Vorapat Inkarojrit


Nowadays, global warming is a major problem caused by inefficient use of resources. One of the reasons is from tourism, especially from the energy consumption of the hotel which operates 24 hours a day. While solar energy systems are installed to reduce the carbon footprint of hotels, research on carbon offset hotel buildings is still very limited. Especially in small hotels which are the main choice of hotels for Thai tourists. This study is a simulation research, which aims to study the installation patterns of solar power systems for small hotels. A hotel in Nan province was used as a case study. In this study the building roof area, the building roof shape, the roof and solar panel tilt angle and building shape and solar panel orientation were altered to estimate electricity used through the Design builder simulation program Design Builder v7.0.1.006 and the economics analysis were performed to find a suitable installation solution.

The results show that the optimal form of installation per roof area is the installation form that covers the building's 1 year electricity consumption and the main factors that affect the potential to reduce carbon footprints is orientation of the building and facing the solar panel to the south and the southwest is the best direction. determine the solar panel tilt angle at 18 degrees. By the most attractive form for investment is an Internal Rate of Return at 11.00 % with a net present value of 554,326 baht and a payback period of 8.60 years, which can reduce the carbon footprint of 27,500.81 kg.CO2eq in 1 year.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tuntimas, P., & Inkarojrit, V. (2023). The Potential to Reduce Hotels Carbon Footprint by Using Solar Energy: A Case Study of Small Hotels in Nan Province. Asian Creative Architecture, Art and Design, 36(2), 108–127. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Amiri, A., Ottelin, J., & Sorvari, J. (2019). Are LEED-certified buildings energy-efficient in practice?. Sustainability, 11(6), 1672.

Atchanapanya, N. (2020). Ku Ru Thongthiao Chi Trend Mai Ma Raeng Lang COVID-19. (in Thai)

Chansela, W., & Inkarojri, V. (2019). Feasibility Assessment of Solar Rooftop Systems for Gymnasium: Case Study of School and University. Journal of Environmental Design, 7(2), 2-25. (in Thai)

Cheung, M., & Fan, J. (2013). Carbon reduction in a high-density city: A case study of Langham Place Hotel Mongkok Hong Kong. Renewable energy, 50, 433-440.

Chomdee, S. (2015). Investment Analysis of Photovoltaic Rooftop Systems for Residences in Northern Thailand [Master’s thesis]. Chiang Mai University (in Thai)

Rungsiyopas, M., & Chuenwattanapranithi, C. (2022). Determining the significance of installation parametersaffecting energy yield of grid-connected rooftop photovoltaic system. Journal of Engineering and Innovation, 15(3), 57-70. (in Thai)

Dhirasasna, N., & Sahin, O. (2021). A system dynamics model for renewable energy technology adoption of the hotel sector. Renewable Energy, 163, 1994-2007.

Department of Energy Development and Efficiency. (2017). Project for Improving Solar Energy Potential Maps from Satellite Imagery for Thailand in 2017. (in Thai)

Duangchaiboon, K. (2018). Feasibility study on hybrid solar water heating for hotel buildings. Academic Journal Uttaradit Rajabhat University, 13(1), 65-78. (in Thai)

Elghamry, R., Hassan, H., & Hawwash, A. A. (2020). A parametric study on the impact of integrating solar cell panel at building envelope on its power, energy consumption, comfort conditions, and CO2 emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 249, 119374.

Fathalian, A., & Kargarsharif, H. (2020). Investigating the effect of different energy saving strategies on energy rating of building by design builder software (case study: office building). Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 22(7), 199-214.

Gössling, S., Peeters, P., Ceron, J. P., Dubois, G., Patterson, T., & Richardson, R. B. (2005). The eco-efficiency of tourism. Ecological economics, 54(4), 417-434.

Klamkruea, P. (2022, September 5). Solar roof: Can everyone own a power plant? Is it worth it? Should I install it yet?. (in Thai)

Lai, J. H. (2015). Carbon footprints of hotels: analysis of three archetypes in Hong Kong. Sustainable Cities and Society, 14, 334-341.

Lerthatasilp, P. (2022, September 6). Eco hotels: Eco-friendly hotels – Practices and trends in 2022, (in Thai)

Metropolitan Electricity Authority. (2022, May 23). MEA opens applications for the 2022 Public Solar Power Project, buying electricity at 2.20 baht per unit under the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) policy. (in Thai)

Pojsiri, A. (2016). Cost Analysis of Solar Rooftop Project for Small Building [Master’s thesis]. Chon Buri: Burapha University.

Pongchavalit, P. (2014). Assigning guidelines to reduce carbon footprint for domestic small and medium-sized hotel based on the assessment of the carbon footprint for organization (CFO) using Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (Public Organization) standard [Master’s thesis]. Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon. (in Thai)

Rajarajan, M., & Venkatasubramanian, S. G. A. (2016). Study on Carbon Footprint of Different Hotels in A Metropolitan City, International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, 3(1), 91-97.

Salehi, M., Filimonau, V., Asadzadeh, M., & Ghaderi, E. (2021). Strategies to improve energy and carbon efficiency of luxury hotels in Iran. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 26, 1-15.

Solargis. (2013). World Map of Global Horrizontal Irradiation.

Somsawasdi, A. (2022, December 15). It's time for ESG in the hotel industry. (in Thai)

Sridaranon, N. (2018). Concept of Innovative Solar Energy Development for Buildings in Tropical Climate. Built Environment Inquiry Journal, 17(2), 11-24. (in Thai)

Taylor, S., Peacock, A., Banfill, P., & Shao, L. (2010). Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from UK hotels in 2030. Building and environment, 45(6), 1389-1400.

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (Public Organization). (2016). Carbon Footprint of Organization. (in Thai)

Vatan, A., & Yilmaz, Z. (2020). New ceramic solutions in sustainable hotels within the scope of sustainable innovation (V. (Ed.)).