The International Seabed Authority and the Management of Living Resources in the Area under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982

Main Article Content

Wilasinee Maijareonsri

Abstract

“The Area” is a maritime zone that is subject to the international law principle of Common Heritage of Mankind. The International Seabed Authority (the Authority) acts on behalf of various States in controlling activities and managing resources of the Area. However, the resources in the Area described in Part XI of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea are limited to non-living resources, both from the definition contained in the article, and the provisions of the articles, which can be applied only to non-living resources.


This article seeks to illustrate the connection between the Authority and living resources, including the exercise of powers by the Authority to protect the marine environment. Analysis both of laws and facts reveals that the Authority should have power over the living resources in the Area as well as over non-living resources. Nevertheless, a solution to the management of living resources in the Area must clearly define “Resources” to includes both non-living resources and living resources. For further consideration must be given to what regime of the living resources in the Area will be governed between the Freedom of the High Seas and the Common Heritage of Mankind, in order to understand the duty and power of the Authority to adopt provisions, rules, regulations, and procedures in the future.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Maijareonsri, Wilasinee. “The International Seabed Authority and the Management of Living Resources in the Area under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982”. Naresuan University Law Journal 13, no. 2 (December 25, 2020): 21-48. Accessed March 9, 2021. https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/lawnujournal/article/view/242176.
Section
Academic Articles

References

Arico, Salvatore, and Charlotte Salpin. Bioprospecting of Genetic Resource in the Deep Seabed: Scientific, Legal and Policy Aspects (UNU-IAS Report). United: United Nations University, 2005.

Artem, Belyakov. “The role of the International Seabed Authority.” In SemanticScholar. The Regime of the Protection of the Living Resources within Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. Accessed April 10, 2020. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e25d/031d1b1e92a15ac5f328e39bd4c132de6919.pdf.

DG Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. “Study to Investigate State of Knowledge of Deep Sea Mining.” Accessed April 22, 2020, https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/maritimeforum/system/files/Annex%202%20Legal%20analysis.pdf.

Elferink, Alex G. Oude. “The Regime of the Area: Delineating the Scope of Application of the Common Heritage Principle and Freedom of the High Seas.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 22, no. 1 (2007): 152.

Engström, Viljam. Constructing the Powers of International Institutions. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012.

Gavouneil, Maria. “Chapter 6 Challenges to Jurisdiction in the High Seas.” In Functional Jurisdiction in the Law of the Sea, 157. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007.

Gavouneil, Maria. “Protection Standards for the Marine Environment: Updating Part XII of the Law of the Sea Convention?.” Accessed April 12, 2020, https://papers.ssrn.
com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3073263.Harrison, James, Terje Lobach, and Elisa Morgera. Review and Analysis of International Legal and Policy Instruments related to Deep-sea Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction (The ABNJ Deep Seas Project). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2017.

House, Chatham. “Meeting Summary: Legal Responsibility of International Organisations in International Law.” Summary of the International Law Discussion Group meeting held at Chatham House on Thursday, February 10, 2011. Accessed April 5, 2020, https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/Research/International%20Law/il100211summary.pdf.

International Seabed Authority. “About the International Seabed Authority.” Accessed April 6, 2020. https://www.isa.org.jm/authority.

International Seabed Authority. “The Mining Code.” Accessed April 11, 2020, https://www.isa.org.jm/mining-code.

Klamberg, Mark. Evidence in International Criminal Trials: Confronting Legal Gaps and the Reconstruction of Disputed Events. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013.

Korn, Horst, Susanne Friedrich and Ute Feit. Deep sea Genetic Resources in the Context of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Germany: Bundesamt für Naturschutz, 2003.

Lodge, Michael. “The International Seabed Authority and Deep Seabed Mining.” Accessed April 8, 2020. https://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/international-seabed-authority-and-deep-seabed-mining.

Nordquist, Myron H. John Norton Moore, and Ronán Long. “Legal Order.” In The World’s Oceans: UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, edited by Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore and Ronán Long. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Nijhoff, 2017.

Oral, Nilufer. “Chapter 4 Protection of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems in Area Beyond National Jurisdiction: Can International Law Meet the Challenge?.” In Unresolved issues and New Challenges to the Law of the Sea, 85. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2006.

Oxford Public International Law. “Expressio Unius est Exclusio Alterius is an Interpretative Maxim Pursuant to which the Express Mention of an Item Excludes Others.” Accessed April 6, 2020. https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law-mpeipro/e3383.013.3383/law-mpeipro-e3383.

Pfirter, Frida M. Armas. “The Management of Seabed Living Resources in “the Area” under UNCLOS.” Revista Electrónica de Estudios Internacionales no. 11 (2006): 18.

Pratt, Cristelle and Suva FIJI. “Non Living Resources: Capacity Building Challenges and Opportunuties in UNICPOLO XI.” Accessed April 10, 2020. https://www.un.org/depts/los/consultative_process/documents/11_presentation_pratt.pdf.

Preeyaphat Kongthaworn. Guidelines for Joint Exploration and Development Resources in Deep Sea. Bangkok: Mineral Resources Conservation and Management Division, Department of Mineral Resources, 2560. [In Thai]

Proelss. Alexander. “The Role of the Authority in Ocean Governance.” In Regions, Institutions, and Law of the Sea: Studies in Ocean Governance, edited by Harry N. Scheiber and Jin-Hyun Paik (146). Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publichers, 2013.

Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. “Marine and coastal biological diversity: status and trends of, and threats to, deep seabed genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction, and identification of technical options for their conservation and sustainable use.” UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/11/11. Accessed April 11, 2020. https://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/sbstta/sbstta-11/official/sbstta-11-11-en.pdf.

Suttimas Payakkasem. “Responsibities and Obligations of States Sponsoring Persons and Entities with respect to Activities in the Area: A Case Study on the Advisory Opinion of Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Case No.17.” Master’s Thesis, Faculty of Law Chulalongkorn, 2014.

Suwat Tanyaros. “Introduction to Marine Sciences.” Accessed April 10, 2020. http://fishtech.rmutsv.ac.th/fishtech/sites/default/files/files/2557/SAR56/FISHTECH%204.0.3-02%285%29.pdf. [In Thai]

Tanaka, Yoshifumi. “Reflections on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources in the Deep Seabed Beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction.” Ocean Development & International Law 39, no. 2 (May 2008): 133.

Wood, Michael C. “International Seabed Authority: The First Four Years in Max Planck UNYB 3.” Accessed April 10, 2020, https://www.mpil.de/files/pdf2/mpunyb_wood_3.pdf.

Young, Tomme Rosanne and Morten Walløe Tvedt. “Chapter 11 Contract-Related Provisions of ABS Regime Instruments.” In Draft Successful Access and Benefit-sharing Contracts, 332. Leiden: The Netherlands: Brill, 2017.