Traditional Knowledge Digital Library: What could we Learn from India?

Main Article Content

Janyarak Suwapan

Abstract

Should we protect and preserve traditional knowledge? There is no doubt that the answer ‘yes’ has been given by many academics, government agencies, industries, lay man, and especially the holder or guardian of traditional knowledge itself both in Thailand and around the world.2 The most important question to be asked is “How to protect traditional knowledge?” The selection of systems and methods for traditional knowledge protection is still widely debated. Different strategies have been proposed ranging from horizontal to vertical, self-protection to legal protection, human rights to intellectual property rights, manual to technological, and national level to international level. The need to preserve the existence, promote the use and prevent the misuse or misappropriation of traditional knowledge combine with the absence of an effective suigeneris system for the protection of traditional knowledge at both the international and national, calls for a deeper understanding. Thus, the Indian traditional knowledge digital library that could not only preserve, but also prevent misappropriation of, traditional knowledge has been selected as an alternative measure to be examined in this paper.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Suwapan, Janyarak. “Traditional Knowledge Digital Library: What Could We Learn from India?”. Naresuan University Law Journal 9, no. 1 (June 30, 2016): 81. Accessed March 9, 2021. https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/lawnujournal/article/view/98703.
Section
Academic Articles
Author Biography

Janyarak Suwapan, Lecturer

อาจารย์ประจำคณะนิติศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยนเรศวร 99 ม.9 ต.ท่าโพธิ์ อ.เมือง จ.พิษณุโลก 65000

References

Angell, M.. The Truth About the Drug Companies: How they deceive us and what to do. New York: Random House, 2004.

Arunmas, P.. “Rice exporters pessimistic about market prospects.” Bangkok Post. Last modified January 28, 2016. Accessed February 29, 2016. https://www.bangkokpost.com/business/news/842220/rice-exporters-pessimistic-about-market-prospects.

Assisi Foundation, et al. "Biopiracy, TRIPS and the Patenting of Asia’s Rice Bowl: A collective NGO situationer on IPRs on rice, Gaia Foundation and Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN)." Last modified may, 1998. Accessed June 6, 2007. https://www.grain.org/briefings/index.cfm?id=29.

Balasubramanian, N. “Extent of Use of TKDL in Patent Offices: Trends and Concerns.” SSRN. 1, Last modified March 26, 2012. Accessed March 18, 2016. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2032161.

BangkokPost.com dpa. “Rice sales crippled.” Bangkok Post. Last modified March 28, 2008. Accessed May 7, 2008. https://www.bangkokpost.com/topstories/topstories.php?id=126782.

Berkes, F. and Henley, T. “The Usefulness of Traditional Knowledge: Myth or Reality?.” Policy Options. 18, no.4 (May 1997): 55.

Biber-Klemm, S.and Berglas, D. S.. “Problems and Goals.” In Rights to Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Basic Issues and Perspectives, edited by Biber-Klemm, S. and Cottier, T., 24. Cambridge, MA: CABI Pub, 2005.

Blakeney, M.. “Bioprospecting and the Protection of Traditional Medical Knowledge of Indigenous People: an Australian Perspective.” European Intellectual Property Review. 29, no.6 (1997): 298.

Blakeney, M. “The Protection of Traditional Knowledge under Intellectual Property Law.” European Intellectual Property Review. 22, no.6 (2000): 251, 255.

Changthavorn, T., et al. Report of Study: Conception of Thai’s Local Knowledge Protection. Pathumthani: National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 2007.

Chouhan, V. K. “Protection of Traditional Knowledge in India by Patent: Legal Aspect.” Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 3, no.1 (2012): 42.

Correa, C. M. Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: Issues and options surrounding the protection of traditional knowledge, A Discussion Paper. The Quaker United Nations Office (QUNO), 2001.

Cottier, T. and Panizzon, M. “Legal Perspectives on Traditional Knowledge: The Case for Intellectual Property Protection.” Journal of International Economic Law. 7, no.2 (2004): 371, 372.

Coyle T. "The great indigenous rip-off." Last modified 2003. Accessed April 25, 2008. https://greatreporter.com/mambo/content/view/90/13/.

CSIR - Traditional Knowledge Digital Library Unit. "Traditional Knowledge Digital Library: About TKDL." n.d.. Accessed March 24, 2016. https://www.tkdl.res.in/tkdl/langdefault/common/Abouttkdl.asp?GL=Eng.

Datt, D. and Nischal, S. (eds.). Looking Back to Change Track. New Delhi : TERI Press, 2010.

Department of South Asian. Middle East and African Affairs, “Republic of India: Basic Information.” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Thailand. Accessed March 15, 2016. https://sameaf.mfa.go.th/th/country/south-asia/detail.php?ID=9.

Drahos, P. “Indigenous Knowledge, Intellectual Property and Biopiracy: Is a Global Biocollecting Society the Answer?.” European Intellectual Property Review. 22, no.6 (2000): 245, 247.

Dutfield, G. Can the TRIPS Agreement Protect Biological and Cultural Diversity?, Biopolicy International Studies No 19. NAIROBI: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), 1997.

Dutfield, G. “The Public and Private Domains: Intellectual Property Rights in Traditional Knowledge.” Science Communication. 21, no.3 (2000): 274, 278.

Dutfield, G. Protecting Traditional Knowledge: Pathways to the Future (Issue Paper No. 16). Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, 2006.

Farnsworth, N. R., et al. “Medicinal plants in therapy.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 63, no.6 (1985).

Food Market Exchange. “The Controversy Surrounding Thai Hom Mali.” Laws & Regulations: Hot topics.Last modified December24, 2001. Accessed May 5, 2008. https://www.foodmarketexchange.com/datacenter/laws/detail/dc_lr_reference_THM.htm.

Ghosh, S. “Traditional Knowledge, Patents, and the New Mercantilism (Part II).” Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society. 85, no.11 (2003): 885, 898.

Goozner, M. The $800 Million Pill: The truth behind the cost of new drugs. California: University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2004.

Graber, C. B. and Girsberger, M. A. “Traditional Knowledge at the International Level: Current Approaches and Proposals for a Bigger Picture That Includes Cultural Diversity,” In Recht des ländlichen Raums. Festgabe für Paul Richli zum, 60, edited by Jörg Schmid and Hansjörg Seiler, 243-247. Geburtstag: Schulthess, Zörich, 2006.

GRAIN and Kalpavriksh. Traditional Knowledge of biodiversity in Asia-Pacific: Problems of Piracy and Protection. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN) and Kalpavriksh (KV), November, 2002.

Gupta, A. K. “Conserving Biodiversity and Rewarding Associated Knowledge and Innovation Systems: Honey Bee Perspective.” In Intellectual Property: Trade, Competition and Sustainable Development, Proceeding of the World Trade Forum, Berne, 27-28 August 1999. edited by Cottier,T., Mavroidis, P. C. and Panizzon, M., Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2003.

Gupta, V. K. (13-16 December 2005). Traditional Knowledge Digital Library. Paper presented at Sub-Regional Experts Meeting in Asia on Intangible Cultural Heritage: Safeguarding and Inventory-Making Methodologies, Bangkok, 2005.

Gurdjieff, G. “Greek-Armenian religious teacher, mystic.” In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching, 39-40. Ouspensky, P. D. and Williamson, M. (2001). Harvest Book. Mariner Books, Orlando, FL., 1877-1949.

Hansen, S. A. and VanFleet, J. W. Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: A Handbook on Issues and Options for Traditional Knowledge Holders in Protecting their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2003.

Hasan, S. "TED Case Studies Number 665, 2002: The Neem Tree, Environment, Culture and Intellectual Property,Trade Environment Database (TED)."Last modified 2002. Accessed May 5, 2008. https://www.american.edu/TED/neemtree.htm.

Hirwade, M. (3 January 2010). Protecting Traditional Knowledge Digitally: a Case Study of TKDL. Paper presented at National Workshop on Digitization Initiatives & Applications in Indian Context, DNC, Nagpur, 2010.

Hirwade, M. and Hirwade, A. “Traditional Knowledge Protection: An Indian Prospective.” Journal of Library & Information Technology. 32, no.3: 242, 245-246. Accessed May, 2012. https://www.bangkokpost.com/business/news/842220/rice-exporters-pessimistic-about-market-prospects.

India. "PCT Minimum Documentation: Indian Traditional Knowledge Digital Library. Meeting of International Authorities under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) No.PCT/MIA/22/8)."Last modified January 19, 2015. Accessed March 25, 2016. https://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/pct/en/pct_mia_22/pct_mia_22_8.pdf.

International Council for Science. ICSU Series on Science for Sustainable Development No.4: Science, Traditional Knowledge and Sustainable Development. The International Council for Science and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2002.

Jagdale, S. “Battle Against Bio-Piracy,” Express Pharma. Last modified October 7, 2015. Accessed March 16, 2016. https://www.financialexpress.com/article/pharma/cover-story/battle-against-bio-piracy/147258/.

Kelsey, J., (ed.). “Free Trade at Any Price?: The World Trade Organisation Doha Round (ARENA, Christchurch.” In Sinclair, G. F. (2006). “Pacific TRIPS: Strategies for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge by Small Island Developing States in the Pacific Region.” The New Zealand Postgraduate Law E-Journal (NZPGLEJ), (3), 1-25,Last modified 2003. Accessed December 17, 2007. https://nzpostgraduatelawejournal.auckland.ac.nz/PDF
%20Articles/Issue%203%20(2006)/5_guy.pdf.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. “Theorizing Heritage.” In Ethnomusicology. 39, no.3 (1995): 370. Accessed March 25, 2016. https://www.nyu.edu/classes/bkg/web/semheritage.pdf.

Kuanpoth, J. “Protection and Management of Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge in Developing Countries.” Thai Bar Law Journal, 56, no.3 (2000): 26, 36.

Kuanpoth, J. “Protection of Traditional Knowledge in the Face of Globalisation: Balancing Mechanism between CBD and TRIPS.” In Intellectual Property and International Trade Law Forum. (Special Issue 2007), (2007): 90.

Kudngaongarm, P. Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Indigenous Resources: Concepts and Analysis. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University Publishing house, 2009.

Kutty, V. G. “Use of Existing Intellectual Property System to Protect Folklore.” as cited in Puri, K. Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights - The Interface, In Intellectual Property Rights and Communications in Asia - Conflicting Traditions, 116-117, 1999.

Thomas, P. N. and Servaes, J. (eds.). (2006). India: Sage Publications.Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, opened for signature 15 April 1994, 1867 UNTS 3 (entered into force 1 January 1995), annex 1C (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights). Accessed March 15, 2016. https://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips.pdf.

Mashelkar, R. A. “Intellectual property rights and the Third World.” In Current Science Special Section: Science in the Third World. 81, no.8 (2001): 959-960.

McChesney, J. D. “Biological Diversity, Chemical Diversity and the Search for New Pharmaceuticals.” In Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: biodiversity and its importance to human health, (1996): 11.

Michael J. Balick, Elaine Elisabetsky and Sarah A. Laird, (eds.), New York: Columbia University Press.

McGown, J. Out of Africa: Mysteries of Access and Benefit Sharing. Africa: Edmonds Institute in cooperation with African Centre for Biosafety, 2006.

McLachlan-Chew, J. “Australia, a look at “bioprospecting” and the knowledge of indigenous people: the search for new plant and animal substances with medicinal or other useful properties often deeply affects indigenous people.(Environment).” One Country. 16, no.1 ( April-June, 2004). Accessed January 5, 2008. https://www.onecountry.org/e161/e16104as_Australia_Bioprospecting_ story.htm.

Mgbeoji, I. Global Biopiracy: Patents, Plants, and Indigenous Knowledge.New York: Cornell University Press Ithaca, 2006.

Ministry of Environment and Forests. India’s Fifth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity 2014. New Delhi: Government of India, 2014.

National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation. Prescription Drugs and Mass Media Advertising. National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, 2011.

Office of Agricultural Economics. Total exports -- Rice (total): The monthly export volume and value. Accessed February 29, 2016. https://www.oae.go.th/oae_report/export_import/export_result.php.

Puri, K. “Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights - The Interface.” In Intellectual Property Rights and Communications in Asia - Conflicting Traditions. (2006): 116, 123.

Ninan, P. T. and Servaes, J., (eds.). India: Sage Publications. Raven, P. H. and Wilson, E. O. (13 November 1992). “A Fifty-Year Plan for Biodiversity Surveys.” Science. 258 (5085), 1099.

Robinson D., F. Governance and Micropolitics of Traditional Knowledge, Biodiversity and Intellectual Property in Thailand: Research Report. National Human Rights Commission of Thailand, University of New South Wales and University of Sydney, 2006.

Roht-Arriaza, N. “Of Seeds and Shamans: The Appropriation of the Scientific and Technical Knowledge of Indigenous and Local Communities,” In Borrowed power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation, edited by Ziff, B. and Rao, P. V., 255,259. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Sahai, S. Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Possible Methods of Sharing Benefits with Local Communities. BRAC Centre for Development Management, 2002.

Sahai, S. Pavithran, P. and Barpujari, I. Biopiracy: Imitations Not Innovations.New Delhi: Gene Campaign, 2007.

Sen, N. (10 May 2002). “‘TKDL’ - A safeguard for Indian traditional knowledge.” Current Science. 82, no.9 (10 May 2002): 1070.

Sen, S. and Chakraborty, R. “Traditional Knowledge Digital Library: a distinctive approach to protect and promote Indian indigenous medicinal treasure.” Current Science. 106, no.10 (2014):1341-1342.

Settee, P. “Pimatisiwin: Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Our Time Has Come.” Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D., University of Saskatchewan, 2007.

Shiva, V. "The neem tree - a case history of biopiracy Third World Network (TWN)." n.d. Accessed April 17, 2007. https://www.twnside.org.sg/title/pir-ch.htm.

Simon, B. S. “Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge: A Psychological Approach to Conflicting Claims of Creativity in International Law.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 20, (2005):1613, 1645.

Slack, A. "TED Case Studies Number 770, 2004: Turmeric, Trade Environment Database (TED)." Last modified 2004. Accessed May 5, 2008. https://www.american.edu/ted/turmeric.htm.

Straus, J. “Biodiversity and Intellectual Property.” In Rethinking International Intellectual Property: Biodiversity & Developing Countries, Extraterritorial Enforcement, the Grace Period, and Other Issues: Proceedings of the 2000 High Technology Summit Conference, University of Washington, Seattle, CASRIP Symposium Publication Series Number 6, (2001):141-142. Hill, K. M., Takenaka, T. and Takeuchi, K., (eds.), Seattle, WA: CASRIP, University of Washington School of Law.

Tarasofsky, R. G. “The Relationship between the TRIPs Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity: Towards a Pragmatic Approach.” Review of European Community and International Environmental Law (RECIEL). 6, no.2 (1997): 149.

Thammapitakkun, S. “The Protection of Local Knowledge.” Chulalongkorn Law Journal. 25 (Special Issue), (2006): 159,163-164.

The Nationmultimedia.com. “Thai rice gurus predict long-term sellers’ market,” The Nation. Last modified June 15, 2008. Accessed February 25, 2016. https://www.nationmultimedia.com/headlines/Thai-rice-gurus-predict-long-term-sellers-market- 30075556.html.

The Nationmultimedia.com. "Thailand set to reclaim top rice exporter title, The Nation." Last modified December 23, 2014. Accessed February 25, 2016. https://www.nationmultimedia.com/business/Thailand-set-to-reclaim-top-rice-exporter-title-30250443.html.

The Secretariat. Traditional Knowledge – Operational Terms and Definitions. WIPO/GRTKF/IC/3/9, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 2002.

The Technical Board of Appeal. "European Patent Office." n.d. Accessed June 20, 2008. https://legal.european-patent-office.org/dg3/pdf/t010416eu1.pdf.

Twarog, S. “Preserving, Protecting and Promoting Traditional Knowledge: National Actions and International Dimensions,” In Protecting and Promoting Traditional Knowledge: Systems, National Experiences and International Dimensions, edited by Twarog, S. and Kapoor, P., 420, 461. New York, Geneva: United Nations Publication, 2004.

Twarog, S. and Kapoor, P. Protecting and Promoting Traditional Knowledge: Systems, National Experiences and International Dimensions. New York, Geneva: United Nations Publication, 2004.

United Nations Development Programme (UNEP). (December 2003). UNDP / GEF BIODIVERSITY ENABLING ACTIVITIES: Analysis of Capacity Assessment Reports by Selected Countries on Access & Benefit Sharing and Traditional Knowledge. Paper presented at the CBD Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Access and Benefit Sharing of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2003.

Vadi, V. “Intangible Heritage: Traditional Medicine and Knowledge Governance.” Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice, 2, no.10 (2007): 682, 685.

Varkey, E. Traditional Knowledge - The Changing Scenario in India’ (Paper presented at the IP, Cultural Heritage and the Public Domain. University of Edinburgh, AHRC Research Centre for studies in Intellectual Property and Technology Law, 2003.

Visser, C. J. “Making Intellectual Property Laws Work for Traditional Knowledge.” In Poor People’s Knowledge: Promoting Intellectual Property in Developing Countries, edited by Finger, J. M. and Schuler, P., 207,213. Washington, D.C.: Co publication of the World Bank, Oxford University Press, 2004.

WIPO. "WIPO and India Partner to Protect Traditional Knowledge from Misappropriation." Last modified March 22, 2011. Accessed March 15, 2016. https://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/articles/2011/article_0008.html.

WIPO. "International Conference Concludes TKDL Can Prevent Misappropriation and Fuel Innovatio WIPO Press Releases." Last modified March 24, 2011. Accessed March 25, 2016. https://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/articles/2011/article_ 0009.html.

WIPO. "Protecting India’s Traditional Knowledge, WIPO Magazine." Last modified June, 2011. Accessed March 25, 2016. https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2011/03/article_0002.html.

Workman, D. “Leading Rice Export Countries.” Suite101.com: Business and Finance. Last modified April 16, 2008. Accessed May 7, 2008. https://internationaltrade-commodities.suite101.com/article.cfm/leading_rice_export_countries.

World Bank. Population, total. Accessed March 15, 2016. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.

World Health Organization. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002–2005. WHO/EDM/TRM/2002.1, World Health Organization (WHO), 2002

World Intellectual Property Organizations (WIPO). Intellectual Property Needs and Expectations of Traditional Knowledge Holders, (World Intellectual Property Organizations (WIPO) Report on Fact-finding Missions on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge (1998-1999). World Intellectual Property Organizations, 2001.