• Prasit Wacharachaisophonsiri Ph.D Candidate, Doctor of Philosophy in Technology Education and Management, Graduate School of Business and Advanced Technology Management, Assumption University of Thailand


Organic Food Consumption, Gen Y, Online Purchase Intention, Attitudes, Perceived Risk


This research aims to examine factors influencing Gen Y consumers’ online purchase intention of organic food in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. The conceptual framework contains key variables including reasons against organic food purchase, health consciousness, reasons for organic food consumption, attitudes, social influence, perceived risk, and online purchase intention. This study applied quantitative approach to distribute the questionnaire to 500 respondents. The sampling techniques are judgmental sampling, convenience sampling and snowball sampling. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to analyze the data. The findings were that attitudes are significantly influenced by reasons against organic food consumption, reasons for organic food consumption and health consciousness but not by social influence. Furthermore, Online purchase intention is significantly influenced by reasons against organic food consumption, reasons for organic food consumption and attitudes but not by perceived risk. The study sheds light on the Vietnamese consumers’ attitudes toward online shopping which can be useful for academic practitioners, online food retailers and marketers.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Orgnizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Bhatti, A., Saad, S., & Gbadebo, S. M. (2018). Convenience risk, product risk, and perceived risk influence on online shopping: Moderating effect of attitude. International Journal of Business Management, 3(2), 1-11.

Chang, T. Z., & Wildt, A. R. (1994). Price, product information, and purchase intention: An empirical study. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science: Official Publication of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(1), 16-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070394221002

Compagnoni, A. (2009). Organic food labels: History and latest trends. In J. Albert (Ed.), Innovations in Food Labelling. Woodhead Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1533/9781845697594.75

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.

Hansmann, R., Baur, I., & Binder, C. R. (2020). Increasing organic food consumption: An integrating model of drivers and barriers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 275(10), 1-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123058

Hsu, Y., & Le, H. (2020). Factors Influencing on Consumers’ Online Shopping Behaviors in Vietnam and Taiwan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 11(10), 154- 165. https://doi.org/10.30845/ijbss.v11n10p16

Ismail, S., & Mohd Mokhtar, S. S. (2016). Linking attitude to actual purchase of herbal product in Malaysia: The moderating role of perceived risk. Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 6(2), 22-30. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.1006/2016.6.2/1006.2.22.30

Ketabi, S. N., Ranjbarian, B., & Ansari, A. (2014). Analysis of the Effective Factors on Online Purchase Intention through Theory of Planned Behavior. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(4), 374-382. https://doi.org/10. 6007/ijarbss/v4-i4/808

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Li, Y. H., & Huang, J. W. (2009). Applying Theory of Perceived Risk and Technology Acceptance Model in the Online Shopping Channel. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 53(5), 919-925.

Mitchell, V. (1999). Consumer perceived risk: conceptualisations and models. European Journal of Marketing, 33(1/2), 163-195. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569910249229

Nguyen, M. N. (2021, April 1). E-commerce in Vietnam - statistics & facts. Statista. https://www.statista.com/topics/5321/e-commerce-in-vietnam/

Nguyen, H. V., Nguyen, N., Nguyen, B. K., Lobo, A., & Vu, P. A. (2019). Organic food purchases in an emerging market: The influence of consumers’ personal factors and green marketing practices of food stores. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(6), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061037

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). The Assessment of Reliability. Psychometric Theory, 3, 248-292.

Pedroso, R., Zanetello, L., Guimaraes, L., Pettenon, M., Goncalves, V., Scherer, J., Kessler, F., & Pechansky, F. (2016). Confirmatory factor anlaysis (CFA) of the crack use relapse scale (CURS). Archives of Clinical Psychiatry, 43(3), 37-40.

Shin, J., & Mattila, A. S. (2019). When organic food choices shape subsequent food choices: The interplay of gender and health consciousness. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76(3), 94-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.04.008

Smith, R. (2021). Generation X: history and characteristics. https://www.familysearch.org/en/blog/generation-x-characteristics-history

Soper, D. S. (2022, May 24). A-priori Sample Size Calculator for Structural Equation Models. Danielsoper. www.danielsoper.com/statcalc/default.aspx

Studenmund, A. H. (1992). Using Econometrics: A Practical Guide. Harper Collins.

Talwar, S., Kaur, P., Yadav, R., Sharma, R., & Dhir, A. (2021). Food waste and out-of-homedining: antecedents and consequents of the decision to take away leftovers after dining at restaurants. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966 9582.2021.1953512

Tandon, A., Dhir, A., Kaur, P., Kushwah, S., & Salo, J. (2020). Behavioral reasoning perspectives on organic food purchase. Appetite, 154(6), 104786. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.appet.2020.104786

Tandon, A., Jabeen, F., Talwar, S., Sakashita, M., & Dhir, A. (2021). Facilitators and inhibitors of organic food buying behavior. Food Quality and Preference, 88(8), 104077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104077

Testa, F., Sarti, S., & Frey, M. (2019). Are green consumers really green? Exploring the factors behind the actual consumption of organic food products. Business Strategy and the Environment, 28(2), 327-338. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2234

Van Huy, L., Chi, M. T. T., Lobo, A., Nguyen, N., & Long, P. H. (2019). Effective segmentation of organic food consumers in Vietnam using food-related lifestyles. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(5), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051237

Vo, K. C., & Laukkanen, T. (2021). Psychological factors predicting organic food consumption in social commerce. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 4260-4269). https://doi.org/10.24251/hicss.2021.517

Wang, J., Shen, M., & Chu, M. (2021). Why is green consumption easier said than done? Exploring the green consumption attitude-intention gap in China with behavioral reasoning theory. Cleaner and Responsible Consumption, 2(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clrc.2021.100015

Wei, Y., Wang, C., Zhu, S., Xue, H., & Chen, F. (2018). Online purchase intention of fruits: Antecedents in an integrated model based on technology acceptance model and perceived risk theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01521

Westaby, J. D. (2005). Behavioral reasoning theory: Identifying new linkages underlying intentions and behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 98(2), 97-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.07.003

Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models. Sociological Methodology, 8, 84-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/270754

Wunsch, N. G. (2021, 17 February). Worldwide sales of organic food from 1999 to 2019. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/273090/worldwide-sales-of-organic-foods-since-1999/






Research Articles