The Roles of Indirect Asynchronous Electronic Feedback and Direct Corrective Feedback in Improving Students’ L2 Writing: A Multiple Case Study of Thai Undergraduate Students

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Pratabjai Tatsanajamsuk
Saksit Saengboon


This study investigates the roles of indirect asynchronous electronic feedback (e-feedback) and direct corrective feedback (CF) on calque and collocation errors produced by Thai undergraduate students. The study also explores the factors influencing their ability to benefit from the feedback. Six cases were divided into two groups (Group 1: direct CF and Group 2: indirect asynchronous e-feedback). The participants in Group 1 were asked to write English paragraphs on paper while those in Group 2 wrote using Google Docs software. After completing each writing task regarding the selective feedback on calque and collocation errors, participants were individually interviewed. Findings revealed that the participants in Group 2 outperformed those in Group 1 when correcting calque errors. However, the participants in Group 1 outperformed those in Group 2 when revising collocation errors. Thus, direct CF is more conducive to writing improvement than indirect asynchronous e-feedback. These findings suggest that an integration of technology in a writing class should be implemented to ensure that EFL learners learn how use digital technology effectively. Moreover, individual differences, for example, carelessness, insufficient English knowledge, the first language, learning styles, and learning strategies played important roles in their ability and inability to respond to feedback.

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Tatsanajamsuk, P., & Saengboon, S. (2021). The Roles of Indirect Asynchronous Electronic Feedback and Direct Corrective Feedback in Improving Students’ L2 Writing: A Multiple Case Study of Thai Undergraduate Students. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14(2), 397–426. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Pratabjai Tatsanajamsuk, Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand

Ph.D. candidate in Language and Communication, Graduate School of Language and Communication (GSLC), National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Thailand. She received her M.A. in Language and Communication from GSLC, NIDA. Her interests include applied linguistics, material design, and research methodology.

Saksit Saengboon, Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand

Assistant Professor at GSLC, NIDA.


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