Main Article Content
This article reports the results of a study that explored Thai EFL learners’ repertoire of congruent and incongruent academic English (L2) collocations in relation to their native-Thai language (L1) and academic experience. Eighty Thai tertiary students performed a gap-filling translation test on 15 congruent and 15 incongruent collocations by providing equivalent L2 collocates. The results indicated that the students’ greater exposure to academic discourse increased their acquisition of academic collocations. However, overall they demonstrated insufficient knowledge of academic collocations, especially incongruent L1-L2 combinations. This is because they depended heavily on their L1 lexicon and general L2 lexis to compensate for their lack of knowledge and awareness of typical academic L2 collocations. The results suggest that although L2 exposure has a facilitative effect on collocation acquisition, it is still imperative that EFL learners receive explicit instruction which is devoted to elaborating and disambiguating the L1 and L2 meanings of academic collocations and their component words in isolation.
Adamska-Sałaciak, A. (2013). Equivalence, synonymy, and sameness of meaning in a bilingual dictionary. International Journal of Lexicography 26(3), 329–345. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ect016
Altenberg, B., & Granger, S. (2001). The grammatical and lexical patterning of MAKE in native and non-native student writing. Applied Linguistics, 22(2), 173–195. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/22.2.173
Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2010). Grammatical complexity in academic English: Linguistic change in writing. Cambridge University Press.
Chansopha, N. (2018). The use of international business management collocations by Thai EFL speakers. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 11(1), 87–109.
Conklin, K., & Schmitt, N. (2012). The processing of formulaic language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 32, 45–61. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190512000074
Cruse, D. A. (2006). A glossary of semantics and pragmatics. Edinburgh University Press.
Durrant, P., & Schmitt, N. (2010). Adult learners' retention of collocations from exposure. Second Language Research, 26(2), 163–188. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658309349431
Fernández, B. G., & Schmitt, N. (2015). How much collocation knowledge do L2 learners have?: The effects of frequency and amount of exposure. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 166(1), 94–126. doi:10.1075/itl.166.1.03fer
Flowerdew, L. (2012). Corpora and language education. Palgrave Macmillan.
Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2018). Investigating the collocations available to EAP writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 35, 93–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2018.07.003
Gardner, D., & Davies, M. (2014). A new academic vocabulary list. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 305–627. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt015
Hoey, M. (2005). Lexical priming: A new theory of words and language. Routledge.
Hyland, K. (2013). Writing in the university: Education, knowledge and reputation. Language Teaching, 46(1), 53–70. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000036
Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K. (2017). The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge University Press.
Laufer, B., & Waldman, T. (2011). Verb-noun collocations in second language writing: A corpus analysis of learners. English Language Learning, 61, 647–672. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00621.x
Lei, L., & Liu, D. (2018). The academic English collocation list: A corpus-driven study. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 23(2), 216–243. https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.16135.lei
Men, H. (2018). Vocabulary increase and collocation learning: A corpus-based cross-sectional study of Chinese learners of English. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-5822-6
McKay, S. L. (2009). Introspection techniques. In J. Heigham & R. A. Croker (Eds.), Qualitative research in applied linguistics: A practical introduction (pp. 220–241). Palgrave Macmillan.
Nagy T., I., Rácz, A., & Vincze, V. (2020). Detecting light verb constructions across languages. Natural Language Engineering, 26, 319–348. doi:10.1017/S1351324919000330
Nesselhauf, N. (2003). The use of collocations by advanced learners of English and some implications for teaching. Applied Linguistics, 24(2), 223–242. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.2.223
Nesselhauf, N. (2005). Collocations in a learner corpus. John Benjamins.
Nguyen, T. M. H., & Webb, S. (2016). Examining second language receptive knowledge of collocation and factors that affect learning. Language Teaching Research, 21(3), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816639619
Peters, E. (2015). The learning burden of collocations: The role of interlexical and intralexical factors. Language Teaching Research, 20(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814568131
Phoocharoensil, S. (2013). Cross-linguistic influence: Its impact on L2 English collocation production. English Language Teaching, 6(1), 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n1p1
Rychlý, P. (2008). A lexicographer-friendly association score. https://www.sketchengine.eu/bibliography-of-sketch-engine/
Sinclair, J. (2008). The phrase, the whole phrase, and nothing but the phrase. In S. Granger & F. Meunier (Eds.), Phraseology: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 407–410). John Benjamins.
Sanguannam, S. (2017). A study on “delexical verb+noun” collocation errors of Thai EFL intermediate and advanced learners. Journal of Liberal Arts, 17(1), 59–84.
Siyanova-Chanturia, A. (2015). Collocation in beginner learner writing: A longitudinal study. System, 53, 148–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.07.003
Siyanova-Chanturia, A., & Schmitt, N. (2008). L2 learner production and processing of collocation: A multi-study perspective. Canadian Modern Language Review, 64, 429–458. doi:10.3138/cmlr.64.3.429
Siyanova-Chanturia, A., & Spina, S. (2015). Investigation of native speaker and second language learner intuition of collocation frequency. Language Learning, 65(3), 533–562. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12125
Snoder, P., & Reynolds, B. L. (2019). How dictogloss can facilitate collocation learning in ELT. ELT Journal, 73(1), 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccy024
Stubbs, M. (2001). Words and phrases: Corpus studies of lexical semantics. Blackwell.
Stubbs, M. (2009). The search for units of meaning: Sinclair on empirical semantics. Applied Linguistics, 30(1), 115–137.
Tsai, M-H. (2018). The effects of explicit instruction on L2 learners’ acquisition of verb-noun collocations. Language Teaching Research, 24(4), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818795188
Vilkaitė, L., & Schmitt, N. (2019). Reading collocations in an L2: Do collocation processing benefits extend to non-adjacent collocations? Applied Linguistics, 40(2), 329–354. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx030
Wang, Y. (2016). The idiom principle and L1 influence: A contrastive learner-corpus study of delexical verb + noun collocations. John Benjamins.
Webb, S., & Kagimoto, E. (2011). Learning collocations: Do the number of collocates, position of the node word, and synonymy affect learning? Applied Linguistics, 23(3), 259–276. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amq051
Wolter, B. (2006). Lexical network structures and L2 vocabulary acquisition: The role of L1 lexical/conceptual knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 27(4), 741–747. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/aml036
Wolter, B., & Gyllstad, H. (2013). Frequency of input and L2 collocational processing: A comparison of congruent and incongruent collocations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35(3), 451–482. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263113000107
Wolter, B., & Yamashita, J. (2017). Word frequency, collocational frequency, L1 congruency, and proficiency in L2 collocational processing: What accounts for L2 performance? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(2), 395–416. doi:10.1017/S0272263117000237
Wray, A. (2002). Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge University Press.
Yamashita, J. (2018). Possibility of semantic involvement in the L1-L2 congruency effect in the processing of L2 collocations. Journal of Second Language Studies, 1(1), 60–78. https://doi.org/10.1075/jsls.17024.yam
Yamashita, J., & Jiang, N. (2010). L1 influence on the acquisition of L2 collocations: Japanese ESL users and EFL learners acquiring English collocations. TESOL Quarterly, 44(4), 647–668. https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2010.235998
Yoon, H. J. (2016). Association strength of verb-noun combinations in experienced NS and less experienced NNS writing: Longitudinal and cross-sectional findings. Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 42–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.11.001