Evaluating Implicit and Explicit Exposure to ESL and Their Influence on Motivation

Main Article Content

Tg Nur Liyana


Extensive SLA research has led to a myriad of teaching and learning methods. Implicit and explicit English language exposures constitute important components utilized in English language education. In Malaysia, the English language status had been downgraded for a period of time after the pre-independence era resulting in reduced English language exposure in classrooms. This has contributed in producing decreased English language fluency among graduates and it has raised the question as to which of the two language exposure modes best motivates language learning. Accordingly, the present study investigated whether doing receptive and productive language activities implicitly or explicitly correlates with motivation (low to high) among Malaysian higher education students. 445 from 460 undergraduate respondents from different public and private higher education institutions were selected following data cleaning. The initial analysis for descriptive data using the SPSS was followed by the structural model analysis using the PLS-SEM. The results show that explicit ESL exposure increased motivation to learn English. Implicit exposure, by contrast, did not directly increase motivation to learn English. Future research should examine how implicit (vs. explicit) language exposure influences different elements of language learning (e.g., syntax, semantics) to further verify the significance of present study’s measurement items.

Article Details

How to Cite
Liyana, T. N. (2022). Evaluating Implicit and Explicit Exposure to ESL and Their Influence on Motivation. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 15(2), 57–79. Retrieved from https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/LEARN/article/view/259922
Research Articles
Author Biography

Tg Nur Liyana, Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Kelantan, Malaysia

Currently a PhD candidate in Applied Language Studies in UiTM Selangor, Malaysia. Her interest in language learning strategies is mainly guided by her experience in teaching ESL to higher learning students. She is determined to inspire ESL teachers and learners to implement language learning strategies that align with their region. This includes understanding the types of exposure to ESL as a significant part of the learning strategies.


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