Experiences, Causes, and Solutions for Injustice in Covid-19 Online Classes: Evidence from University EFL Students in Iran

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Masoomeh Estaji
Kiyana Zhaleh


Although the investigation of justice has gained momentum in in-person, traditional classes during the last two decades, not much is known about this phenomenon and its violation (known as injustice) during Covid-19 imposed online classes. To address this gap, university students’ experiences of injustice during online classes were examined, and the perspectives of 91 Iranian EFL students were explored. The data were collected by employing an open-ended questionnaire and subsequently content analyzed via MAXQDA (Version 2020) to extract the themes and subthemes on the questions under study. Results uncovered that (1) the majority of the students had experienced injustice during their online EFL classes; (2) online-, teacher-, and class-related factors were the leading causes of injustice; and (3) the suggested solutions to mitigate the experience of injustice revolved around improving teacher-student interpersonal relationships, teaching practice quality, online teaching literacy, and online-related factors, and creating an enjoyable learning environment. The findings are discussed with the prospect of developing the practices of university EFL teachers and teacher educators to enhance EFL students’ experiences of online language learning during and beyond the Covid-19 outbreak.

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Estaji, M., & Zhaleh, K. (2022). Experiences, Causes, and Solutions for Injustice in Covid-19 Online Classes: Evidence from University EFL Students in Iran. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 15(2), 436–467. Retrieved from https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/LEARN/article/view/259936
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Masoomeh Estaji, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

An Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics at Allameh Tabataba’i University. She has presented and published numerous papers in Educational Assessment, Language Learning in Higher Education, Reading Psychology, English as an International Language, The Asian ESP, Asia TEFL, and Classroom Interaction. Her research interests include language testing and assessment, ESP, and teacher education.

Kiyana Zhaleh, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

A university lecturer (PhD, Allameh Tabataba’i University) in Iran for the past three years. She has published papers in System, Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, TESL-EJ, Current Psychology, Language Related Research, Polish Psychological Bulletin, and Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics. Her research interests lie mainly in the areas of Teacher Education, Instructional Communication, and Social Psychology of Justice.


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