Effects of Using Online Corpus and Online Dictionary as Data-driven Learning on Students' Grammar Mastery

Main Article Content

Akhmad Fauzanz
Yazid Basthomi
Francisca Maria Ivone


This study compares the effects of using online corpus and online dictionary as Data-Driven Learning (DDL) on EFL students' grammar mastery and their perceptions after learning with the two media in grammar instruction. The experiment with a counterbalanced design was employed with two replications, and 65 students in two intact classes participated. In the first replication, 33 students of the first group learned grammar with an online corpus, while 32 students of the second group learned using an online dictionary. In the second replication, the first group of students learned grammar with an online dictionary, while the second group learned with an online corpus. After each replication, the students took a grammar test and filled in a questionnaire. The grammar tests after learning with an online corpus were compared to the results of the grammar tests after learning with an online dictionary. Then the students' responses on both media were also compared. The statistical evidence comparing grammar test results reveals no statistical difference in students' grammar mastery after learning with an online corpus and an online dictionary. The same result is obtained when comparing their perceptions after learning with both media.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fauzanz, A., Basthomi, Y., & Ivone, F. M. (2022). Effects of Using Online Corpus and Online Dictionary as Data-driven Learning on Students’ Grammar Mastery. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 15(2), 679–704. Retrieved from https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/LEARN/article/view/259945
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Akhmad Fauzanz, English Language Teaching, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

A PhD student in Graduate Program of English Language Teaching, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. He is a lecturer in Undergraduate Program of English Language Teaching, Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia.

Yazid Basthomi, English Language Teaching, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

A Professor of Applied Linguistics with the Department of English, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. His research interests include genre analysis, corpus research, and corpus-based teaching.

Francisca Maria Ivone, English Language Teaching, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

An Assistant Professor in Graduate Program of English Language Teaching, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her research interests include Applied Linguistics, Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL), Autonomous Learning, Self-Directed Learning, English Language Teaching (ELT), Listening, Reading, Extensive Reading/Listening/Viewing, and Cooperative Learning.


Ackerley, K. (2017). Effects of corpus-based instruction on phraseology in learner English. Language Learning and Technology, 21(3), 195–216. https://www.lltjournal.org/item/3006

Akpinar, K. D., Aşik, A., & Vural, A. S. (2015). The relationship between the effectiveness of vocabulary presentation modes and learners’ attitudes: Corpus based contextual guessing, dictionary use and online instruction. Asian EFL Journal, 17(1), 90–116. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com

Alsaraireh, M. Y. (2021). Corpus-based instruction: Fostering EFL learning in Jordan. Asian EFL Journal, 28(2.3), 299–313. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com

Alzu’bi, M. A. (2015). Effectiveness of inductive and deductive methods in teaching grammar. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(2), 187–193. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.6n.2p.187

Aşık, A., Vural, A. Ş., & Akpınar, K. D. (2016). Lexical awareness and development through data driven learning: Attitudes and beliefs of EFL learners. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(3), 87–96. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i3.1223

Bardovi-Harlig, K., Mossman, S., & Su, Y. (2017). The effect of corpus-based instruction on pragmatic routines. Language Learning and Technology, 21(3), 76–103. https://www.lltjournal.org/item/3009

Basturkmen, H. (2018). Explicit versus implicit grammar knowledge. In J. I. Liontas (Ed.), The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–6). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0060

Boontam, P., & Phoocharoensil, S. (2018). Effectiveness of English preposition learning through data-driven learning (DDL). 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 24(3), 125–141. https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2018-2403-10

Boulton, A., & Cobb, T. (2017). Corpus use in language learning: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 67(2), 348–393. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12224

Boulton, A., & Tyne, H. (2015). Corpus-based study of language and teacher education. In M. Bigelow & J. Ennser-Kananen (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Educational Linguistics (pp. 301–312). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315797748-29

Chambers, A. (2010). What is data-driven learning? In A. O’Keeffe & M. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics (pp. 345–358). Routledge.

Chang, J.-Y. (2014). The use of general and specialized corpora as reference sources for academic English writing: A case study. ReCALL, 26(2), 243–259. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000056

Chen, M., & Flowerdew, J. (2018). Introducing data-driven learning to PhD students for research writing purposes: A territory-wide project in Hong Kong. English for Specific Purposes, 50(April 2018), 97–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2017.11.004

Chen, Y. (2016). Dictionary use for collocation production and retention: A call-based study. International Journal of Lexicography, 30(2), 225–251. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecw005

Chiu, L.-L., & Liu, G.-Z. (2013). Effects of printed, pocket electronic, and online dictionaries on high school students’ English vocabulary retention. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 619–634. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-013-0065-1

Cotos, E., Link, S., & Huffman, S. (2017). Effects of DDL technology on genre learning. Language Learning and Technology, 21(3), 104–130. https://www.lltjournal.org/item/3011

Crosthwaite, P. (2017). Retesting the limits of data-driven learning: Feedback and error correction. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(6), 447–473. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1312462

Daskalovska, N. (2015). Corpus-based versus traditional learning of collocations. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(2), 130–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2013.803982

Dilenschneider, R. F. (2017). Examining the conditions of using an on-line dictionary to learn words and comprehend texts. ReCALL, 30(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344017000234

Dörnyei, Z., & Taguchi, T. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Dwaik, R. A. A. (2015). English digital dictionaries as valuable blended learning tools for Palestinian college students. English Language Teaching, 8(11), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n11p1

Fleming, D. (2018). Deductive versus inductive teaching. In J. I. Liontas (Ed.), The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–7). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0052

Flowerdew, L. (2012). Corpora and language education. Palgrave Macmillan.

Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2012). Learners’ use of corpus examples. International Journal of Lexicography, 25(3), 273–296. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecs011

Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2014). The use of corpus examples for language comprehension and production. ReCALL, 26(2), 128–146. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000093

Friginal, E. (2013). Developing research report writing skills using corpora. English for Specific Purposes, 32(4), 208–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2013.06.001

Gao, Z.-M. (2011). Exploring the effects and use of a Chinese-English parallel concordancer. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3), 255–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.540469

Geluso, J., & Yamaguchi, A. (2014). Discovering formulaic language through data-driven learning: Student attitudes and efficacy. ReCALL, 26(2), 225–242. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000044

Gilquin, G. (2020). Using corpora to foster L2 construction learning: A data-driven learning experiment. International Journal of Applied Linguistics (United Kingdom), February 2019, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijal.12317

Girgin, U. (2019). The effectiveness of using corpus-based activities on the learning of some phrasal-prepositional verbs. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 18(1), 118–125. http://files.eric.ed.gov/ fulltext/EJ1201799.pdf

Gordani, Y. (2013). The effect of the integration of corpora in reading comprehension classrooms on English as a Foreign Language learners’ vocabulary development. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(5), 430–445. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2012.685078

Hirata, Y., & Hirata, Y. (2019). Applying ‘Sketch Engine for Language Learning’ in the Japanese English classroom. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 31(2), 233–248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-019-09208-z

Huang, L. A. (2012). The effectiveness of a corpus-based instruction in deepening EFL learners’ knowledge of periphrastic causatives. TESOL International Journal, 6(June), 83–108. https://www.tesol-international-journal.com/volume-6-june-2012/

Huang, Z. (2014). The effects of paper-based DDL on the acquisition of lexico-grammatical patterns in L2 writing. ReCALL, 26(2), 163–183. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000020

Johns, T. (1991). Should you be persuaded: Two examples of data-driven learning. ELR Journal, 4, 1–16. https://lexically.net/wordsmith/ corpus_linguistics_links/Tim Johns and DDL.pdf.

Karras, J. N. (2016). The effects of data-driven learning upon vocabulary acquisition for secondary international school students in Vietnam. ReCALL, 28(2), 166–186. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344015000154

Lai, S.-L., & Chen, H.-J. H. (2015). Dictionaries vs concordancers: Actual practice of the two different tools in EFL writing. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(4), 341–363. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2013.839567

Laosrirattanachai, P., & Ruangjaroon, S. (2021). Corpus-based creation of tourism, hotel, and airline business word lists. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14(1), 50–86.

Larsen-Walker, M. (2017). Can Data Driven Learning address L2 writers’ habitual errors with English linking adverbials? System, 69(October 2017), 26–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.08.005

Lee, H., Warschauer, M., & Lee, J. H. (2019). The effects of corpus use on second language vocabulary learning: A multilevel meta-analysis. Applied Linguistics, 40(5), 721–753. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amy012

Li, S. (2017). Using corpora to develop learners’ collocational competence. Language Learning and Technology, 21(3), 153–171. https://www.lltjournal.org/item/3018

Lin, M. H. (2016). Effects of corpus-aided language learning in the EFL grammar classroom: A case study of students’ learning attitudes and teachers’ perceptions in Taiwan. TESOL Quarterly, 50(4), 871–893. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.250

Lin, M. H., & Lee, J.-Y. (2015). Data-driven learning: Changing the teaching of grammar in EFL classes. ELT Journal, 69(3), 264–274. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccv010

Luo, Q. (2016). The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners’ writing development. SpringerPlus, 5(1255), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2935-5

Mizumoto, A., & Chujo, K. (2016). Who is data-driven learning for? Challenging the monolithic view of its relationship with learning styles. System, 61(2016), 55–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.07.010

Mizumoto, A., Chujo, K., & Yokota, K. (2016). Development of a scale to measure learners’ perceived preferences and benefits of data-driven learning. ReCALL, 28(2), 227–246. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344015000208

Moon, S., & Oh, S.-Y. (2017). Unlearning overgenerated be through data-driven learning in the secondary EFL classroom. ReCALL, 30(1), 48–67. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344017000246

Mueller, C. M., & Jacobsen, N. D. (2016). A comparison of the effectiveness of EFL students’ use of dictionaries and an online corpus for the enhancement of revision skills. ReCALL, 28(1), 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344015000142

Nugraha, S. I., Miftakh, F., & Wachyudi, K. (2017). Teaching grammar through Data-Driven Learning (DDL) approach. 82(Conaplin 9), 300–303. https://doi.org/10.2991/conaplin-16.2017.68

Nunan, D. (1998). Teaching grammar in context. ELT Journal, 52(2), 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/52.2.101

Nurmukhamedov, U. (2012). Online English-English learner dictionaries boost word learning. English Teaching Forum, 50(4), 10–15. https://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/50_4_4_nurmukhamedov.pdf.

Pawlak, M. (2018). Grammar learning strategy inventory (GLSI): Another look. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 351–379. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.2.8

Phoocharoensil, S. (2012). Language corpora for EFL teachers: An exploration of English grammar through concordance lines. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 64(2012), 507–514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.060

Poole, R. (2016). A corpus-aided approach for the teaching and learning of rhetoric in an undergraduate composition course for L2 writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 21(March 2016), 99–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2015.12.003

Poole, R. (2020). “Corpus can be tricky”: Revisiting teacher attitudes towards corpus-aided language learning and teaching. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 0(0), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2020.1825095

Preradović, N. M., Posavec, K., & Unić, D. (2019). Corpus-supported foreign language teaching of less commonly taught languages. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 335–352. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12422a

Quinn, C. (2014). Training L2 writers to reference corpora as a self-correction tool. ELT Journal, 69(2), 165–177. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccu062

Smart, J. (2014). The role of guided induction in paper-based data-driven learning. ReCALL, 26(2), 184–201. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000081

Sripicharn, P. (2010). How can we prepare learners for using language corpora? In A. O’Keeffe & M. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics (pp. 371–384). Routledge.

Tananuraksakul, N. (2015). The effect of online dictionaries usage on EFL undergraduate students’ autonomy. Teaching English with Technology, 15(4), 3–15.

Tono, Y., Satake, Y., & Miura, A. (2014). The effects of using corpora on revision tasks in L2 writing with coded error feedback. ReCALL, 26(2), 147–162. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095834401400007X

Tsai, K.-J. (2019). Corpora and dictionaries as learning aids: inductive versus deductive approaches to constructing vocabulary knowledge. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(8), 805–826. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1527366

Türkmen, Y., & Aydin, S. (2016). The effects of using online concordancers on teaching grammar. Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi Nisan, 20(1), 145–152. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ ED565621.pdf

Yoon, C. (2016). Concordancers and dictionaries as problem-solving tools for ESL academic writing. Language Learning and Technology, 20(1), 209–229. https://doi.org/10125/44453