Promoting Thai EFL Learners’ Willingness to Communicate in the Virtual Classroom Through Technology-Mediated Oral Tasks
Main Article Content
Willingness to communicate (WTC) in English in a classroom setting is considered a crucial factor for successfully learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether the intervention of technology-mediated oral tasks on the Flipgrid application designed as entrance and exit tickets could promote Thai EFL learners’ WTC in English in the virtual classroom. It also examined their perceptions towards this pedagogical practice. This intervention was implemented in an online English for Communication course for eight weeks. A mixed methods approach was employed in this study with 34 participants through pre-post WTC questionnaires, a Flipgrid questionnaire, and focus-group interviews. The results showed that the increase in learners’ overall WTC after the intervention was statistically significant (p<.001). Moreover, the students reported positive opinions towards the use of technology-mediated oral tasks in terms of academic engagement and in the improvement of speaking and listening skills. The study concludes with implications for best practices in the online English language classroom as well as suggestions for further research.
Baker, S., & MacIntyre, P. (2003). The role of gender and immersion in communication and second language orientations. Language Learning, 50, 65–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00224
Beding, B. P. & Inthapthim, D. (2019). The effects of using task-based language teaching approach on the speaking skill of Thai EFL learners. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 17(1), 105–125.
Cao, Y. (2014). A sociocognitive perspective on second language classroom willingness to communicate. TESOL Quarterly, 48(4), 789–814. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.155
Cao, Y., & Philp, J. (2006). Interactional context and willingness to communicate: A comparison of behavior in whole class, group and dyadic interaction. System, 34, 480–493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.05.002
Cherrez, N. V. J. (2019). Examining the impact of technology-mediated oral communicative tasks on students’ willingness to communicate and communicative performance [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Iowa State University.
Chotipaktanasook, N. (2014). Enhancing learners’ willingness to communicate in English with social media. Dhurakij Pundit University.
Chotipaktanasook, N. & Reinders, H. (2016). Willingness to communicate in social media: An investigation of the long-term effects. Asian EFL Journal, 18(4), 6–25.
Clément, R., Baker, S. C. & MacIntyre, P. D. (2003). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effects of context, norms, and vitality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 22(2), 190–209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X03022002003
Darling, W. E. & Chanyoo, N. (2018). Relationships of L2 motivational self-system components and willingness to communicate in English among Thai undergraduate students. NIDA Journal of Language and Communication, 23(33), 1–22.
Difilippantonio-Pen, A., (2020). Flipgrid and second language acquisition: Using flipgrid to promote speaking skills for English language learners [Master’s thesis, Bridgewater State University]. Virtual Commons. https://vc.bridgew.edu/theses/75
Gonzalez-Lloret, M. & Ortega, L. (2014). Technology-mediated TBLT: Researching technology and tasks. Benjamins.
Hanifah & Nainggolan, E. E. (2021). University students’ willingness to communicate in Virtual classroom. Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies, 8(1), 68–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.26555/adjes.v8i1.20108
Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of reported L2 use: the Japanese ESL context. Second Language Studies, 20(2), 29–70.
Kamprasertwong, T. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English speech as a second language: A study of Thai, Chinese, and Dutch Samples [Unpublished Master’s thesis]. University of Groningen.
Karnchanachari, S. (2019). An investigation into learners’ willingness to communicate in English in the classroom: A study of Thai EFL students in the Thai and international programs. rEFLections, 26(2), 83–106.
MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S., Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support, and language-learning orientations of immersion students. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 369–388. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263101003035
MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S., Clément, R., & Donovan, L. (2003). Sex and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among junior high school French immersion students. Language Learning, 53(S1), 137–166. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00226
MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei Z., Clément R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal 82(4), 545–562. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb05543.x
Mango, O. (2021). Flipgrid: Students’ perceptions of its advantages and disadvantages in the language classroom. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science (IJTES), 5(3), 277–287. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijtes.195
McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985, November 7–10). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, Colorado, United States.
Pattapong, K. (2015). Complex interactions of factors underlying Thai EFL learners’ willingness to communicate in English. PASAA, 49, 105–136.
Peng, J. E., & Woodrow, L. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom context. Language Learning, 60, 834–876. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00576.x
Petersen, J. B., Townsend, S. D. & Onaka, N. (2020). Utilizing flipgrid application on student smartphones in a small-scale ESL study. English Language Teaching, 13(5), 164–176. http://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v13n5p164
Reinders, H. & Wattana, S. (2015). Affect and willingness to communicate in digital game-based learning. ReCALL, 27(1), 38–57. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000226
Sesriyani, L. (2020). The Indonesian students’ willingness to communicate in virtual class: A case study. Journal GEEJ, 7(2), 214–227. https://doi.org/10.46244/geej.v7i2.1191
Shao, Q. & Gao, X. (2016). Reticence and willingness to communicate (WTC) of East Asian language learners. System, 63(4), 115–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.10.001
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second language learning. Edward Arnold.
Smith, B. & Gonzalez-Lloret, M. (2020). Technology-mediated task-based language teaching: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 54(4), 518–534. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444820000233
Stoszkowski, J. (2018). Using Flipgrid to develop social learning. Compass Journal of Learning and Teaching 11(2), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.21100/compass.v11i2.786
Toyoda, J., Yashima, T. & Aubrey, S. (2021). Enhancing situational willingness to communicate in novice EFL learners through task-based learning. JALT Journal, 43(2), 185–214. https://doi.org/10.37546/JALTJJ43.2-3
Tuyet, T. T. B. & Khang, N. D. (2020). The influences of the flipgrid app on Vietnamese EFL high school learners’ speaking anxiety. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 5(1), 128–149. https://doi.org/10.46827/ejfl.v5i1.3264
Wanich, W. (2014). The relationship between the CLT approach and Thai EFL students’ attitudes and motivation in learning speaking. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 7(1), 106–124.
Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. Modern Language Journal, 86, 54–66. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00136
Yashima,T., MacIntyre, P. D. & Ikeda, M. (2016). Situated willingness to communicate in an L2: Interplay of individual characteristics and context. Language Teaching Research, 22(1), 115–137. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816657851
Yashima, T., Zenuk-Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54, 119–152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00250.x
Ziegler, N. (2016). Taking technology to task: Technology-mediated TBLT, performance, and production. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 136–163. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190516000039