Literacy Teaching Strategies: Do Indonesian Secondary EFL Teachers Practice What They Know?

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Utami Widiati
Tengku Intan Suzila bt Tengku Sharif
Sari Karmina
Nanang Zubaidi


Developing students' literacy skills remains a challenge for many EFL teachers. The current study explores data about which literacy teaching strategies secondary EFL teachers in Indonesia report they know and practice and what roles they think they can play in developing students’ literacy skills to support school literacy initiative programs. Quantitative data about literacy-teaching knowledge and practice as well as qualitative data about teacher roles were collected through a questionnaire distributed to as many accessible teachers as possible using a convenience sampling technique with Google Forms. Responses were obtained from 157 voluntary secondary EFL teachers, mostly from East Java Province, Indonesia. The quantitative data were analyzed descriptively to result in percentages demonstrating knowledge, practice, and differences between knowledge and practice, whereas the qualitative data were analyzed using a deductive thematic method. The results show the use of various literacy teaching activities, but do not yet reflect pervasive influence of technology among teachers. Gaps are identified between EFL teachers’ knowledge of literacy teaching strategies and their corresponding actual teaching practices, implying that knowing a certain literacy-teaching strategy does not necessarily mean taking actions. The qualitative findings show that EFL teachers played roles as providers of literacy access and facilities, motivators for students' love for reading and reading habits, creators of conducive environments, and role models to optimize literacy programs in school.

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Widiati, U., Sharif, T. I. S. bt T., Karmina, S., & Zubaidi, N. (2023). Literacy Teaching Strategies: Do Indonesian Secondary EFL Teachers Practice What They Know?. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 16(1), 339–364. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Utami Widiati, Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

A professor of ELT in Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her main research interests are curriculum and material development, second language acquisition, and teacher professional development. ORCID. 0000-0002-8603-4556.

Tengku Intan Suzila bt Tengku Sharif, Akademi Pengajian Bahasa, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan, Pahang, Malaysia

A senior lecturer at the Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia. She is a well published researcher and his areas of interest include TEFL and TESL, languages and studies on endangered languages.

Sari Karmina, Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

A faculty member at the Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her main research interests cover English teaching and learning, literacy pedagogy and education, and collaborative learning.

Nanang Zubaidi, Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

A faculty member at the Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. His areas of interests include English teaching and learning, translation studies, and language and linguistics.


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