Writing Enjoyment among EFL Postgraduate Students in Indonesia: The Interplay between Students’ Writing Self-Efficacy and Research Literacy and Teachers’ Immediacy and Clarity

Main Article Content

Priyatno Ardi
Suci Nugrah Amalia
Utami Widiati
Deron Walker
Lastika Ary Prihandoko


The present study aims to investigate the interplays among students’ writing self-efficacy, students’ research literacy, teachers’ immediacy, and teachers’ clarity in facilitating the writing enjoyment of EFL postgraduate students in Indonesia. This quantitative research was designed by using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) as a model analysis. A questionnaire of 40 items adapted from previous studies was used to measure the variables. One hundred fifty EFL postgraduate students in Indonesian universities filled out the questionnaire. Path analyses demonstrated positive relationships among the variables, meaning that students’ writing self-efficacy and research literacy and teachers’ immediacy and clarity impacted writing enjoyment. Nevertheless, the findings demonstrated that correlations between teachers’ immediacy, teachers’ clarity and students’ writing enjoyment are not statistically significant, indicating that teacher-related factors, namely teachers’ immediacy and clarity, may not have significantly impacted students’ writing enjoyment. The pedagogical implications and future research directions are examined further.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ardi, P., Amalia, S. N., Widiati, U., Walker, D., & Prihandoko, L. A. (2024). Writing Enjoyment among EFL Postgraduate Students in Indonesia: The Interplay between Students’ Writing Self-Efficacy and Research Literacy and Teachers’ Immediacy and Clarity. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 17(1), 632–661. Retrieved from https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/LEARN/article/view/270437
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Priyatno Ardi, English Language Education Study Program, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Indonesia; Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang

A Ph.D. student in ELT at Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia and a faculty member at the English Language Education Study Program of Universitas Sanata Dharma, Indonesia. His research interests include learner autonomy, student engagement, technology in language learning, EFL teacher education, and applied linguistics.

Suci Nugrah Amalia, Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang

A Ph.D. student at Department of English, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her research interests include willingness to communicate, and teacher professional development.

Utami Widiati, Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang

A professor in ELT at the Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Her research focuses on foreign language literacy, curriculum and material development, and teacher professional development. She also serves as the chief editor of TEFLIN Journal.

Deron Walker, Modern Languages and Literature Department, California Baptist University

A professor of English at Modern Languages and Literature Department, California Baptist University, USA. His research interests include intercultural rhetoric both for writers and teachers of writing and empowering care.

Lastika Ary Prihandoko, Management Trading Department, Universitas Sebelas Maret

A faculty member at Management Trading Department, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia. He is interested in researching academic writing.


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