Improvement in the EFL Learning Process in VET Studies. A Structural Equations Model of Affective Variables: English Language Anxiety, Willingness to Communicate and Self-efficacy in English

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Beatriz Chaves-Yuste
Cristina de-la-Peña Álvarez
Mercedes Pérez Agustín


Vocational Education and Training (VET) is undergoing an international and national improvement process in order to achieve internationalization, among others. To this end, it is necessary to optimize the EFL level of VET students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to analyze the direct and indirect effects of English language anxiety, willingness to communicate in English, and self-efficacy in English on the academic performance in EFL among VET students. The sample consisted of 100 Spanish VET students (75% female - 25% male) aged between 18 and 40 years old. Questionnaires on English language anxiety (FLCAS), willingness to communicate in English (WTC), and self-efficacy in English skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) were administered. In addition, academic grade was used to measure the performance in English. The proposed model received a satisfactory fit. The results show that English language anxiety significantly influences academic performance and has a medium effect on willingness to communicate in English. Practical implications for organizing English classes to improve English proficiency in VET are discussed.

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How to Cite
Chaves-Yuste, B., de-la-Peña Álvarez, C., & Agustín, M. P. (2024). Improvement in the EFL Learning Process in VET Studies. A Structural Equations Model of Affective Variables: English Language Anxiety, Willingness to Communicate and Self-efficacy in English. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 17(1), 759–788. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Beatriz Chaves-Yuste, Department of English Studies, Faculty of Commerce and Tourism, Complutense University of Madrid

A lecturer at the Department of English Studies, UCM. She holds a Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching and an MA in Bilingual Education. She has been teaching for more than 20 years. She has published in different journals on EFL and ESP acquisition and active methodologies.

Cristina de-la-Peña Álvarez, Department of Research Methods and Diagnosis in Education, Faculty of Education, International University of La Rioja

An Associate Professor at UNIR. She specializes in linguistic competence, early literacy, and neuropsychopedagogical processes. She has more than 15 years of experience in this field and has collaborated on numerous projects and research groups and has more than fifty publications of scientific articles

Mercedes Pérez Agustín, Department of Didactics of Languages, Arts and Physical Education, Faculty of Education, Complutense University of Madrid

A lecturer at UCM. She has a Ph.D. in Semiotics in the Native American Oral Tradition and an MA in English-Spanish Translation. She has been teaching EFL for more than 15 years. Her research focuses on storytelling and its benefits for learning English as a second language.


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