The Efficiency of Priming Techniques for the Word Recognition and Sentence Comprehension of EFL Learners: Conceptual and Perceptual Priming in Comparison

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Mohammad Saber Khaghaninejad


This study attempted to examine the impacts of conceptual and perceptual primes on the word recognition and sentence comprehension of beginner, intermediate and advanced EFL learners. Consequently, 246 EFL learners were recruited for study and categorized into three English proficiency levels. The needed data was collected via Lexical Decision Tasks (LDTs) and a constructed multiple-choice sentence comprehension test. The findings indicated that both priming techniques improved word recognition and sentence comprehension of the participants significantly, however the conceptual primes were more facilitative for both word recognition and sentence comprehension tasks. Moreover, language proficiency was found to be determinant of priming efficiency, in the way that, as the learners become more proficient their performance would be more positively affected by both conceptual and perceptual priming techniques. Finally, the pedagogical implications and suggestions are discussed in the light of the findings.

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Khaghaninejad, M. S. (2024). The Efficiency of Priming Techniques for the Word Recognition and Sentence Comprehension of EFL Learners: Conceptual and Perceptual Priming in Comparison. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 17(1), 789–815. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biography

Mohammad Saber Khaghaninejad, epartment of foreign languages and linguistics, School of letters and humanities, Shiraz University

An Associate Professor of TEFL at department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University, Iran, since 2011. He offers Psycholinguistics and Sociolinguistics in BA, MA and PhD programs and for the time being, he is a member of TESL Quarterly's editorial board. His areas of interests are psycholinguistics, teaching methodology and sociolinguistics.


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