Revisiting the HNoMS Helge Ingstad and Sola TS collision: Discussing the contribution of human factors


  • Aditya Singh World Maritime University, Fiskehamnsgatan 1, Malmo 21118, Sweden
  • Dimitrios Dalaklis World Maritime University, Fiskehamnsgatan 1, Malmo 21118, Sweden
  • Raphael Baumler World Maritime University, Fiskehamnsgatan 1, Malmo 21118, Sweden



Human factors, Human error, BRM, Deadly dozens, Communication, Situational awareness, Safety culture, Fatigue, OODA loop


Human factors play pivotal roles in maritime accidents, incidents, and errors. In this paper, we discuss the attributes of human elements involved in the collision between frigate Helge Ingstad and tanker Sola TS. Although the warship Helge Ingstad was modern and well equipped, with requisite navigational aids, the availability of monitoring by VTS, and timely warnings made by the crew/pilot onboard Sola TS, the accident still occurred. It is not a mere coincidence that human factors of all three entities failed to avert such an accident. The officer of the watch perceived that Sola TS, a moving tanker, was a shore object. Also, he could not assimilate the indication from navaids and decision-making tools, including RADAR/APRA and AIS. The paper further discusses the significant human-related factors-“the deadly dozen”- caused by several contributing factors, including environmental, procedural, and competency issues, behavioral factors, sense-making, and fatigue. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to mitigate/control human errors.


  • Human related factors or “Deadly Dozens” can act as a catalyst for maritime accidents
  • The collision between Warship Helge Ingstad and Tanker TS Sola highlighted importance of safety culture and challenges of sense making
  • Adopting human oriented designs, organizations and environment are critical as organizational and personal human factors play a important part in accident causation
  • Promoting best practices including observance of COLREGs, maintaining lookouts, developing of cognitive skills and maintaining correct situational awareness through systematic process of Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) can reduce maritime collisions or accidents significantly


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How to Cite

Singh, A., Dalaklis, D., & Baumler , R. . (2023). Revisiting the HNoMS Helge Ingstad and Sola TS collision: Discussing the contribution of human factors. Maritime Technology and Research, 5(3), 262199.