Emission and environmental cost estimation of ferries operating in Lake Van


  • Levent Bilgili Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Faculty of Maritime, Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University, Balikesir 10200, Turkey
  • Volkan Şahin Department of Marine Engineering, Faculty of Maritime, Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Van 65080, Turkey




Shipping emissions, Lake Van, Ferry, Atmospheric pollution, Environmental cost


Ships, which are the essential elements of maritime transportation, have an indispensable role in world freight and passenger transportation. Besides sea routes, the role played by ships in inland water transport is also very important. In addition to these important economic effects, ships are also a major pollutant source. These emissions have negative effects on human health, cities, and the environment, as well as causing atmospheric pollution. Lake Van is Turkey's largest inland lake, with an area of ​​3,713 km2, and is an important inland waterway, with an active ferry network operating between Van and Tatvan-Bitlis. In this study, emission calculations of these ferries operating in Lake Van were carried out; it was aimed to develop an emission inventory for ship-related air pollution on Lake Van. Additionally, the environmental (social) costs of these emissions were estimated to assess the total impacts. One year of ship operation data was used for the calculations, and the engine power method was preferred, according to the available data. According to the calculations, the ship-originated emission inventory on Lake Van was determined to be 36,140.54, 107.84, 29.15, 17.49, 990.95, and 11.66 t for CO2, SO2, CO, HC, NOx, and PM, respectively. The total environmental costs of these emissions were calculated to be 40,046,340 €. These results are important in terms of determining the environmental effects of transportation activities in Lake Van, which have not been studied before.


  • The study covers the emission and environmental cost estimation of maritime transportation in Lake Van
  • The total emissions are estimated at 37,297.63 t
  • The total environmental cost is estimated at 40,046,340 €
  • It is recommended that IMO regulations should strictly implemented in inland waters


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How to Cite

Bilgili, L. ., & Şahin, V. . (2023). Emission and environmental cost estimation of ferries operating in Lake Van. Maritime Technology and Research, 5(3), 262215. https://doi.org/10.33175/mtr.2023.262215