Development of Assessment Framework for Sustainable Ecotourism Management along Bang Pakong River by e-Delphi Technique

Main Article Content

Nuchanat Laingaumnuay
Poonpong Suksawang


         Ecology and environment are important tourism resource. Tourism operators should have effective assessment that are suitable with local contexts using principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers that lead to truly sustainable ecotourism. The objectives of this research was to develop the assessment framework for sustainable ecotourism management along Bang Pakong River by e-Delphi technique for 3 rounds. It is a mixed-method research which combined between qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitative data were taken from information given by the 20 ecotourism experts and practitioners in an open-ended questionnaire which later used for content analysis. The obtained principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers were then used to develop a closed-ended questionnaire to elicit quantitative data from the same group of experts. It was found that the assessment framework for sustainable ecotourism management along the Bang Pakong River by e-Delphi technique consisted of four dataset principles namely: 1) environment principle has 2 criteria, 7 indicators, and 27 verifiers; 2) ecological principle has 3 criteria, 10 indicators, and 38 verifiers; 3) management and service principle has 2 criteria, 9 indicators, and 35 verifiers; and 4) economy principle has 3 criteria, 8 indicators, and 30 verifiers. It can be concluded that the developed assessment framework for the ecotourism management along Bang Pakong River can be used in assessing the ecotourism management along Bang Pakong River and other rivers of similar features.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Laingaumnuay, N. ., & Suksawang, P. . (2020). Development of Assessment Framework for Sustainable Ecotourism Management along Bang Pakong River by e-Delphi Technique. JOURNAL OF SOUTHERN TECHNOLOGY, 13(2), 126–139. Retrieved from
Research Manuscript


Ashok, S., Tewari, H. R., Behera, M. D., & Majumdar, A. (2017). Development of ecotourism sustainability assessment framework employing Delphi, C&I and participatory methods: A case study of KBR, West Sikkim, India. Tourism Management Perspectives, 21(6), 24-41.

Aziz, A., Barzekar, G., Ajuhari, Z., & Idris, N. H. (2015). Criteria & Indicators for monitoring ecotourism sustainability in a protected watershed: A Delphi Consensus. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), 9(3), 1-9.

Barzekar, G., Aziz, A., Mariapan, M., & Ismail, M. H. (2011). Delphi technique for generating criteria and indicators in monitoring ecotou- rism sustainability in Northern forests of Iran: Case study on Dohezar and Sehezar Watersheds. Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A, 53(2), 130-141.

Baycheva-Merger, T., & Wolfslehner, B. (2016). Evaluating the implementation of the Pan-European criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management–A SWOT analysis. Ecological Indicators, 60(3), 1192-1199.

Biggs, R., Schlüter, M., Biggs, D., Bohensky, E. L., BurnSilver, S., Cundill, G., & Leitch, A. M. (2012). Toward principles for enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37(2), 421-448.

Bordens, K. S., & Abbott, B. B. (2018). Research Design and Methods a Process Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, Ecotourism, and Protected Areas: The State of Nature Based tourism around the World and Guidelines for Its Development. Cambridge: IUCN Publications, P.301.

Choi, H. C., & Sirakaya, E. (2006). Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1274-1289.

Cobbinah, P. B. (2015). Contextualizing the meaning of ecotourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16(2), 179-189.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A Concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research. University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Sage Publications.

Edmonds, W. A., & Kennedy, T. D. (2017). An Applied Guide to Research Designs: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. United States: Sage Publications.

Fachrudin, H. T., & Lubis, M. D. (2016). Planning for Riverside Area as water tourism destination to improve quality of life local residents, Case Study: Batuan–Sikambing River, Medan, Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 234(2), 434-441.

Godratollah, B., Azlizam, A., Manohar, M., Mohd,

H. I., & Hosseni, S. M. (2011). Delphi technique to generating criteria and indicators for monitoring ecotourism sustainability in Northern forest of Iran: case study on Dohezar and Sehezar Watersheds. Folia Forestalia Polonica. Series A, Forestry, 53(2), 130-141.

Gössling, S., & Schumacher, K. P. (2010). Implementing carbon neutral destination policies: issues from the Seychelles. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(3), 377-391.

Hsu, C. C., & Sandford, B. A. (2007). The Delphi technique making sense of consensus. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 12(10), 1-8.

Lee, T. H., Jan, F. H., & Yang, C. C. (2013). Conceptualizing and measuring environmentally responsible behaviors from the perspective of community base tourists. Tourism Management, 36, 454-468.

Logar, I. (2010). Sustainable tourism management in Crikvenica, Croatia: an assessment of policy instruments. Tourism management, 31(1), 125-135.

Mamaqi, X., Miguel, J., & Olave, P. (2010). The e-Delphi method to test the importance competence and skills: case of the lifelong learning Spanish trainers. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 42, 1494-1502.

Needham, M. D., Szuster, B. W., & Bell, C. M. (2011). Encounter norms, social carrying capacity indicators, and standards of quality at a marine protected area. Ocean & Coastal Management, 54(8), 633-641.

Office of Social and Economic Development of Northeast. (2013). Sustainable Ecotourism on the Green Path on the Northeast Area (Research Report). Bangkok: Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. [in Thai]

Palacios, C. (2013). Key elements for successful management of tourism ventures in rural communities. Illuminare: A Student Journal in Recreation, Parks, and Leisure Studies, 11(1), 31-44.

Paresashvili, N. (2014). Major Tasks of Ecotourism Management in Georgia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 156, 170-173.

Phutthirungsamaporn, K. (2018). Bang Pakong River Critical. Retrieved August 4, 2018 from https: // contents/32449 [in Thai]

Plubcharoensuk, P. (2017). Environmental Performance Assessment & Sustainable Development Planning. n.p: Industrial Information Center. [in Thai]

Thangchan, W., Suvachart, N., & Srikamporn, T. (2014). Progress Indicators for Measuring I-san Cultural Tourism along the Mekong River Border for Sustainable Tourism Development. In Graduate Research Conference 15th (pp.222-231). Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen:

Tingtang, A., Chadcham, S., & Juntapremjit, S. (2018). The development criteria in competitiveness of sustainable tourism of sub-district administrative organization. College of Research Methodology and Cognitive Science, 16(1), 163-178. [in Thai]

Torres-Delgado, A., & Saarinen, J. (2014). Using indicators to assess sustainable tourism development: a review. Tourism Geographies, 16(1), 31-47.

Tsaur, S. H., Lin, Y. C., & Lin, J. H. (2006). Evaluating ecotourism sustainability from the integrated perspective of resource, community and tourism. Tourism Management, 27(4), 640-653.

Tudorache, D. M., Simon, T., Frent, C., & Musteată-Pavel, M. (2017). Difficulties and challenges in applying the European tourism indicators system (ETIS) for sustainable tourist destinations: The case of Braşov County in the Romanian Carpathians. Sustainability, 9(10), 1879.

Van Bueren, E. M. L., & Blom, E. M. (1997). Hierarchical Framework for the Formulation of Sustainable Forest Management Standards. Wageningen: Tropenbos Foundation.

Woodman, C. J., Min-Venditti, A. A., Woosnam, K. M., & Brightsmith, D. J. (2019). Water quality for guest health at remote Amazon ecotourism lodges. Tourism Management, 72, 202-208.