Main Article Content
We cannot deny that military factions are a political faction always involved in Thai politics. Wherein, the military factions came to have political roles through a coup and having roles in the parliament, including executive roles. Especially after the incident on October 14, 1973 when political and military powers that were centered at Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachon and Field Marshal Prapas Charusathien fell down, a vacuum has been created in the Royal Thai Army that had led to the formation of military factions which is the grouping of Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy (CRMA) classmates led by class 7 and class 5. Even though the CRMA classmates fell apart in 1992, but the formation of the military factions still occurred and was transformed into a formation grouping of the military who grew up in the 2nd Infantry Division, Queen Sirikit’s Guard (Burapha Payak) and the 1st Divisions, the King’s Guard (Wongthewan) which grouping to build networks and influence in the Royal Thai Army. Whether it is the CRMA military factions led by class 7 and class 5, or the Burapha Phayak and Wongthewan these military factions took on political roles in both the coup and political positions. This article presents the various military factions that have played a role in Thai politics from 1973 to coup on May 22, 2014. What factions were formed within the Royal Thai Army and how did they come to have roles in politics and the military?.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Anekthaweekul, P. (2021). The study of politics as military factions in Thailand, A.D.1973-2019 (Research report). Bangkok: Faculty of Political Science Ramkhamhaeng University. [in Thai].
Bamrungsuk, S. (Ed.). (1987). Thai military system: The study of the armed forces socio-political context. Bangkok: The institute of security and international studies Chulalongkorn University. [in Thai].
Bamrungsuk, S. (1999). From dominance to power sharing: The military and politics in Thailand, 1973-1992 (Doctoral dissertation). New York: Columbia University.
Bamrungsuk, S. (2000). The military and Thai politics in the next century: Development and changes. Bangkok: The institute of security and international studies Chulalongkorn University. [in Thai].
Bamrungsuk, S. (2018). The state and military ideology in Latin America. Bangkok: Paragraph. [in Thai].
Bamrungsuk, S. (2020a). 88 years Thai military regime (14), 1988-1991. Matichonweekly, 40(2096), 46-47. [in Thai].
Bamrungsuk, S. (2020b). 88 years Thai military regime (15), 1991-1992 coup d'état. Matichonweekly, 40(2097), 46-47. [in Thai].
Boonprong, W. (2011). The road to commander-in-chief, Royal Thai Army in the last four decade. In Proceedings the 12th National Conference of Political Science and Public Administration (pp. 560-591). Chiang Mai: Faculty of Political Science and Public Administration Chiang Mai University. [in Thai].
Boonprong, W. (2013). The military and the political roles of the “eastern tigers” military fraction in 1981-2011 A.D. Journal of Interdisciplinary Research: Graduate Studies, 2(2), 1-14. [in Thai].
Bunbongkarn, S. (2004). The military and democracy in Thailand. In R. J. May & V. Selochan (Eds.), The military and democracy in Asia and the Pacific (pp. 47-58). New South Wales: ANU E Press.
Bunbongkarn, S. (2018). 100 years of Thai political development. Bangkok: Faculty of Political Science Chulalongkorn University. [in Thai].
Bunbongkarn, S. (2019). Thai political development: The role of the military. Bangkok: Kobfai. [in Thai].
Chachavalpongpun, P. (2011). Thaksin, the military, and Thailand’s protracted political crisis. In M. Mietzner (Ed.), The political resurgence of the military in SoutheastAsia: Conflict and leadership (pp. 45-62). London: Routledge.
Chambers, P. (2020). “Red rim soldiers”: The changing leadership of Thailand’s military in 2020. Retrieved August 12, 2021, from https://www.newmandala.org/the-changing-leadership-of-thailands-military-in-2020/
Chambers, P., & Waitoolkiat, N. (2016). The resilience of monarchised military in Thailand. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 46(3), 425-444. doi: 10.1080/00472336.2016. 1161060
Chambers, P., & Waitoolkiat, N. (Eds.). (2017). Khaki capital: The political economy of the military in Southeast Asia. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.
Chantimathorn, S. (2006). Paths to power: Manoon Roobkajorn, Arthit Kamlang-ek under the shadow of Prem Tinsulanonda. Bangkok: Matichon. [in Thai].
Fidel, K. (1975). Military organization and conspiracy in Turkey. In K. Fidel (Ed.), Militarism in developing countries (pp. 181-214). New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books.
Finer, S. (1971). The man on horseback: The role of the military in politics (4th ed.). London: Pall Mall Press.
Ganjanakhundee, S. (2019). Thai military power: Why are Thai military weakened?. Fa Diaokan, 17(2), 179-190. [in Thai].
Ganjanakhundee, S. (2020). Red rim soldiers: The birth of the new network monarchy. Retrieved August 12, 2021, from https://prachatai.com/journal/2020/11/90372 [in Thai].
Intasi, W. (2012). Two decades of developing democracy in South Korea: Facilitating and obstructing factors. Journal of Social Sciences Naresuan University, 8(1), 67-108. [in Thai].
Janowitz, M. (1977). Military institutions and coercion in the developing nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Linz, J., & Stepan, A. (1996). Problems of democratic transition and consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Little, R. (1964). Buddy relations and combat performance. In M. Janowitz (Ed.), The new military: Changing patterns of organization (pp. 195-223). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Macan-Markar, M. (2019). All the king's men: Thai military power shifts away from Prayuth. Retrieved March 25, 2021, from https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Asia-Insight/All-the-king-s-men-Thai-military-power-shifts-away-from-Prayuth
McCargo, D. (1997). Chamlong Srimuang and the new Thai politics. London: Hurst & Co.
McCargo, D., & Pathmanand, U. (2005). The thaksinization of Thailand. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.
McCoy, A. (1999). Closer than brothers: Manhood at the Philippine military academy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Morell, D., & Samudavanija, C. (1981). Political conflict in Thailand: Reform, reaction, revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain.
O-Charoen, S. (2006). Political roles of military factions in the period of general Prem Tinsulanonda’s government, 1980-1988 (master’s thesis). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University. [in Thai].
Ockey, J. (2007). Thailand’s professional soldiers and coup-making: The coup of 2006. Crossroad, 19(3), 95-127.
Panduprasert, P. (2019). The military and democratic backsliding in Thailand (Doctoral dissertation). Yorkshire: University of Leeds.
Pathmanand, U. (2008). A different coup d’état?. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 38(1), 124-142. doi: 10.1080/00472330701651994
Pathmanand, U. (2014). Network Thaksin: Structure, roles, and reaction. In P. Phongpaichit (Ed.), To equal Thai society (pp. 193-232). Bangkok: Matichon. [in Thai].
Pawakapan, P. (2019). The Thai military’s civil affairs projects in the electoral democracy period: Development and justification. Journal of Social Sciences Naresuan University, 15(1), 217-247. doi: 10.14456/jssnu.2019.9 [in Thai].
Phiu-Nual, C. (1992). Political thought of the Thai military (1976-1992). Bangkok: Manager. [in Thai].
Prompanjai, A. (2015). Thai politics during the general Prem Tinsulanonda: Political management (1980–88) (Doctoral dissertation). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University. [in Thai].
Samudavanija, C. (1982). Young Turks and democratic military: Analysis the military roles in Thai politics. Bangkok: Bannakij. [in Thai].
Samudavanija, C. (1993). Problems of Thai political development (2nd ed.). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press. [in Thai].
Suvunrach, S. (1993). The role of military in politics: A case study of class V of Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy (master’s thesis). Bangkok: Ramkhamhaeng University. [in Thai].
Tamada, Y. (1995). Coups in Thailand, 1981-1991: Classmates, internal conflicts and relations with the government of the military. Southeast Asian Studies, 33(3), 317-339.
Tamada, Y. (2008). Myths and realities: The democratization of Thai politics. Japan: Kyoto University Press.
Tamada, Y. (2014). September 19, 2006 coup d’état: Military officers’ promotion in Royal Thai Army with political intervention in Thailand. Fa Diaokan, 12(2-3), 187-244. [in Thai].
Tansirikongkon, V. (1994). Economic progress has a coup d'état deterrent or not: A case study of February 23, 1991 coup d’état (term paper po 702 individual study on government and politics 2). Bangkok: Faculty of Political Science Thammasat University. [in Thai].
Tejapira, K. (2008). September 19, 2006 coup d’état and Thai politics. Political Science Journal, 29(3), 1-83. [in Thai].
Yimprasert, S. (2008). The stream of history of Thai democracy (2nd ed.). Bangkok: P. Press. [in Thai].
Verba, S. (1961). Small groups and political behavior: A study of leadership. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Woo, J. (2010). Crafting democratic control of the military in South Korea and the Philippines: The problem of military factions. Contemporary Politics, 16(4), 369-382.