Main Article Content
The movements of civil society in the southern border provinces on natural resource and environmental issues during the 1990s to before the new wave of unrest in 2004 in the case of the Pattani bay movements, the Saiburi river basin movements, and the Budo mountain movements are formatted as a social network that supports each other and adheres to nonviolent action, which is a strategy based on conventional political participation, disruptive/direct action, and self-development/constructive program meanwhile they look like an extension of the bureaucracy. Moreover, the activities of NGO and academics in the southern border since the 1980s, which are the co-building and reinforcing each other, are an important part of creating a learning process and passing on concepts that affect the movements of civil society in the Southern border provinces on natural resources and environmental issues. And these movements are one of the main roots that led to the civil society movement in the Southern Border Provinces after a new wave of unrest in 2004.
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