Development and Validation of Bystander’s Emotionally Supportive Behavior Scale in Junior High School Students

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Chayanis Anusakulroj
Duchduen Bhanthumnavin
Kosol Meekhun


This study aimed at constructing and validating of emotionally supportive behavior scale of bystander to bullying in school. The objectives were to investigate the dimensions and validity of this construct. Total samples were 703 junior high school students in Bangkok. By performing exploratory factor analysis using data set 1, three dimensions were emerged from EFA with the total of 10 items. These dimensions were
1) acceptance of bullying (total of 4 items), 2) ignoring situations that lead to bullying (total of 4 items), and 3) empathy for victim (total of 2 items). These three dimensions could explain the variance of ESBBS with 61.646%. Data set 2 were employed in confirmatory factor analysis. The EFA measurement model was confirmed. By using data set 3, the newly constructed measure was validated and positively related to the standardized psychological and behavioral measures. Thus, this new scale can confidently be used in future studies and assessment in order to increase helping behaviors relating to bullying.


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Anusakulroj, C., Bhanthumnavin, D., & Meekun, K. (2022). Development and Validation of Bystander’s Emotionally Supportive Behavior Scale in Junior High School Students. Journal of Social Development and Management Strategy, 24(2), 48–72. Retrieved from
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