Main Article Content
The current study explores a collaboration between translators and the use of technology in the production of subtitles for a HAS Center video. It elaborates on the interrelationship between the roles of the translators and of the technology within a subtitling process. This type of partnership has not been fully analysed in the literature, especially within a Thai context. To achieve its goal, this study takes a sociological approach to explore how translators work together to translate subtitles from English into Thai in a digitally-mediated environment. The ethnographic data were analysed based on a framework combining the Actor-Network Theory (ANT) as proposed by Latour in 1987 and 2005 with the concept of habitus proposed by Bourdieu in 1977 and 1990. The findings suggest that translators form equal partnerships and reach mutual agreement based on their close interactions and past experience while collectively producing the subtitles. They also make the best use of technology, including networked platforms and facilitating tools, while performing the task. These interrelationships lead to effective teamwork in the production of subtitles, giving rise to a collaborative translation practice.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Boellstorff, T., Nardi, B., Pearce, C., & Taylor, T. L. (2012). Ethnography and virtual worlds: A handbook of method. Princeton University Press.
Boonnoon, J. (2019, July 25). Line aims to unite digital and real world in outreach to Thai users. The Nation Thailand. https://www.nationthailand.com/business/30373677
Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. Polity Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge University Press.
Buzelin, H. (2007). Translations "in the making" In M. Wolf & A. Fukari (Eds.), Constructing a sociology of translation (pp. 135-169). John Benjamins.
Callon, M. (1986). Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay. In J. Law (Ed.), Power, action and belief: a new sociology of knowledge? (pp. 196-223). Routledge.
Callon, M., & Latour, B. (1981). Unscrewing the big Leviathan: How actors macro-structure reality and how sociologists help them to do so. In K. Knorr-Cetina & A.V. Cicourel (Eds.), Advances in social theory and methodology: Toward an integration of micro- and macro-sociologies (pp. 277-303). Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Chesterman, A. (2006). Questions in the sociology of translation. In J. F. Duarte, A. A. Rosa, & T. Seruya (Eds.), Translation studies at the interface of disciplines (pp. 9-27). John Benjamins.
Cheung, M. (Ed.). (2006). An anthology of Chinese discourse on translation: Vol. 1: From earliest times to the Buddhist project. St Jerome Publishing.
Cordingley, A., & Manning, C. F. (2017). What is collaborative translation? In A. Cordingley & C. F. Manning (Eds.), Collaborative translation from the Renaissance to the digital age (pp. 1-30). Bloomsbury.
Díaz-Cintas, J. (2015). Technological strides in subtitling. In S. Chan (Ed.), The Routledge encyclopedia of translation technology (pp. 632-643). Routledge.
Fernández Costales, A. (2012). Collaborative translation revisited: Exploring the rationale and the motivation for volunteer translation. Forum - International Journal of Interpretation and Translation, 10(1), 115-142.
Gibbs, G. R. (2007). Analyzing qualitative data. SAGE Publications.
Gouanvic, J. (2005). A Bourdieusian theory of translation, or the coincidence of practical instances. The Translator, 11(2), 147-166.
Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in practice (2nd ed.). Routledge.
Hekkanen, R. (2009). Fields, networks and Finnish prose: A comparison of Bourdieusian field theory and Actor-Network theory in translation sociology Selected Papers of the CETRA Research Seminar in Translation Studies 2008. https://www.arts.kuleuven.be/cetra/papers/files/hekkanen.pdf
Hine, C. (2008). Virtual ethnography: Modes, varieties, affordances. In N. Fielding, R. M. Lee, & G. Blank (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of online research methods (pp. 257-270). SAGE Publications.
Hine, C. (2015). Ethnography for the Internet: Embedded, embodied, everyday. Bloomsbury.
Hung, E. (2005). Translation in China - an analytical survey: First century B.C.E. to early twentieth century. In E. Hung & J. Wakabayashi (Eds.), Asian translation traditions (pp. 67-107). St. Jerome Publishing.
Hung, E. (2006). 'And the Translator Is -': Translators in Chinese history. In T. Hermans (Ed.), Translating others: Vol. 1 (pp. 145-160). St. Jerome Publishing.
Inghilleri, M. (2005). The sociology of Bourdieu and the construction of the 'object' in translation and interpreting studies. The Translator, 11(2), 125-145.
Jiménez-Crespo, M. A. (2017). Translation crowdsourcing: Research trends and perspectives. In A. Cordingley & C. F. Manning (Eds.), Collaborative translation from the Renaissance to the digital age (pp. 192-211). Bloomsbury.
Kenny, D. (2017). Introduction. In D. Kenny (Ed.), Human issues in translation technology (pp. 1-7). Routledge.
Kenny, M. A. (2008). Discussion, cooperation, collaboration. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 2(2), 139-164.
Latour, B. (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Harvard University Press.
Latour, B. (1999). On recalling ANT. The Sociological Review, 47(1), 15-25.
Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press.
Law, J. (2007). Actor network theory and material semiotics. http://www.heterogeneities.net/publications/Law2007ANTandMaterialSemiotics.pdf
Li, D. (2015). Amateur translation and the development of a participatory culture in china - a netnographic study of the last fantasy fansubbing group [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Manchester] Manchester eScholar. https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/uk-ac-man-scw: 273854
Matthewman, S. (2011). Technology and social theory. Palgrave Macmillan.
Meylaerts, R. (2008). Translators and (their) norms: Towards a sociological construction of the individual. In A. Pym, M. Shlesinger, & D. Simeoni (Eds.), Beyond descriptive translation studies: Investigations in homage to Gideon Toury (pp. 91-102). John Benjamins.
O'Brien, S. (2011). Collaborative translation. In Y. Gambier & L. van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of translation studies: Vol. 2 (pp. 17-20). John Benjamins.
O'Hagan, M. (2009). Evolution of user-generated translation: Fansubs, translation hacking and crowdsourcing. The Journal of Internationalisation and Localisation, 1, 94-121.
O'Hagan, M. (2011). Community translation: Translation as a social activity and its possible consequences in the advent of web 2.0 and beyond. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies, 10, 11-23.
O'Hagan, M. (2013). Understanding fan-translation: Pop culture and geeks too cool for translation schools?. In S. Bayó Belenguer, C. Ó Cuilleanáin, & E. Ní Chuilleanáin (Eds.), Translation right or wrong (pp. 230-245). Four Courts Press.
O'Hagan, M. (2017). Deconstructing translation crowdsourcing with the case of a Facebook initiative: A translation network of engineered autonomy and trust?. In D. Kenny (Ed.), Human issues in translation technology (pp. 25-44). Routledge.
Olohan, M. (2014). Why do you translate? Motivation to volunteer and TED translation. Translation Studies, 7(1), 17-33.
O'Reilly, K. (2009). Key concepts in ethnography. SAGE Publications.
Pym, A. D. (2011). Translation research terms: A tentative glossary for moments of perplexity and dispute. In A. Pym (Ed.), Translation research projects 3 (pp. 75-99). Intercultural Studies Group.
Risku, H., & Windhager, F. (2013). Extended translation: A sociocognitive research agenda. Target, 25(1), 33-45.
Salmons, J. (2016). Doing qualitative research online. SAGE Publications.
Simeoni, D. (1998). The pivotal status of the translator's habitus. Target, 10(1), 1-39.
Wakabayashi, J. (2005). Translation in the East Asian cultural sphere. In E. Hung & J. Wakabayashi (Eds.), Asian translation traditions (pp. 17-65). St. Jerome Publishing.
Wolcott, H. F. (2008). Ethnography: A way of seeing (2nd ed.). Altamira Press.
Wongseree, T. (2018). Understanding Thai fansubbing: Collaboration in fan communities translating a Korean TV show [Doctoral dissertation, Dublin City University]. DCU Online Research Access Service. http://doras.dcu.ie/22113/
Wongseree, T. (2020). Understanding Thai fansubbing practices in the digital era: A network of fans and online technologies in fansubbing communities. Perspectives, 28(4), 539-553.
Zielinska-Elliott, A., & Kaminka, I. (2017). Online multilingual collaboration: Haruki Murakami’s European translators. In A. Cordingley & C. F. Manning (Eds.), Collaborative translation from the Renaissance to the digital age (pp. 167-191). Bloomsbury.