Green Politics: The Conflict of Mainstream Politics and the New Social Movements (NSMs)

Main Article Content

Ladawan Khaikham

Abstract

This article considers green politics as an alternative politics that focuses on environmental concerns. Since the 1960s, green politics has emerged from confrontations between grassroots people and mainstream political structures at the national level through new social and political movements. These political conflicts indicate that the environmental catastrophe becomes one of non-traditional threats, such as climate change and COVID-19 pandemic, which the traditional political system is incapable of dealing with. To begin, this essay examines the concepts of new social movements (NSMs) and green politics, both of which are environmentally friendly in terms of the economy, society, security, international development, and sustainability. Finally, this essay analyzes and compares the political routes of Green Parties vying for political power in Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khaikham ล. . (2021). Green Politics: The Conflict of Mainstream Politics and the New Social Movements (NSMs). Journal of Social Sciences Naresuan University, 17(2), 69–98. https://doi.org/10.14456/jssnu.2021.10
Section
Review Paper

References

African Union Commission. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 outbreak on governance, peace and security in the horn of Africa. Retrieved August 15, 2021, from https://bit.ly/3nTvLh0

Aşıcı, A. A., & Bünül, Z. (2012). Green new deal: A green way out of the crisis?. Environmental Policy and Governance, 22(5), 295–306. https://doi.org/10.1002/eet.1594

Australian Greens. (2020a). End the cruelty. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://greens.org.au/campaigns/close-the-camps

Australian Greens. (2020b). What we do next matters. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://greens.org.au/newhome

Australian Greens. (2020c). Protecting our environment. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://greens.org.au/campaigns/protecting-our-environment

Australian Greens. (2020d). Our campaigns. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://greens.org.au/campaigns

Baker, K. (1981). Germany transformed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Barnett, P. (2015). An introduction to green politics. Retrieved December 27, 2020, from https://greenworld.org.uk/article/introduction-green-politics

BBC News. (2015, December 10). Volkswagen: The scandal explained. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-34324772

BBC News. (2019, November 10). General election 2019: Greens offer basic income by 2025. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/election-2019-50432200

Bélanger, É. (2004). Antipartyism and third-party vote choice: A comparison of Canada, Britain, and Australia. Comparative Political Studies, 37(9), 1054–1078. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414004268847

Bennett, S. (2008). The rise of the Australian greens. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://bit.ly/3AwWgfm

Capra, F., & Spretnak, C. (1984). Green politics. National Forum. 64(3), 21

Conradt, D. P. (2020). Green party of Germany: Political party. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Green-Party-of-Germany

Deutsche Welle. (2021, September 27). Germany votes: Big gains for center-left parties, heavy losses for conservatives-as it happened. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved from https://www.dw.com/en/german-election-2021-live-updates/a-59312264

Dobson, A. (2007). Green political thought (4th ed.). London: Routledge.

Dobson, A. (2016). Environmental politics: A very short introduction (illustrated edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Doungnoi, V. (2019). Political ecology of conflict and resistance to mining of social movements. Burapha Journal of Political Economy, 7(2), 131–154. [in Thai].

Europe Green. (2017). The German greens outline an ambitious 10-point plan for the 2017 bundestag elections. Retrieved December 27, 2020, from https://bit.ly/3lH06N2

Federal Employees. (2019). Compressed work schedules. U.S. office of personnel management. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from https://bit.ly/3Avsvvs

Feindt, P. H., & Cowell, R. (2010). The recession, environmental policy and ecological modernization–what’s new about the green new deal?. International Planning Studies, 15(3), 191–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2010.509474

Galvin, R., & Healy, N. (2020). The green new deal in the United States: What it is and how to pay for it. Energy Research & Social Science, 67, 101529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101529

Global Greens. (2007). Member parties. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://www.globalgreens.org/member-parties

Green Party USA. (2020a). The ten key values of the green party of the United States. Retrieved December 27, 2020, from https://www.gp.org/ten_key_values

Green Party USA. (2020b). Green party of the United States platform. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://www.gp.org/platform

Green Party USA. (2020c). 2020 Candidates. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://www.gp.org/2020_candidates

Green Party USA. (2020d). About. Retrieved December 29, 2020, from https://www.gp.org/about

Green Party USA. (2021). Coronavirus 2020-green party national and state responses. Retrieved September 2, 2021, from https://www.gp.org/coronavirus

Green Party. (2019a). Pollution. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from https://bit.ly/2XKJonR

Green Party. (2019b). Philosophical basis. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from https://bit.ly/3ECIHha

Green Party. (2020). Elected greens in England & wales. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from https://www.greenparty.org.uk/people/elected-greens.html

Green Party. (2021). Greens call for inquiry into government’s handling of Covid-19, one year on from start of lockdown. Retrieved September 2, 2021, from: https://bit.ly/3tXghta

Haute, E. van. (2016). Green parties in Europe. New York: Routledge.

Hope, C. (2015, January 25). British army to be replaced by “home defence force” if greens win power in May. The Telegraph. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://bit.ly/3ku5lQO

Klaituptim, J. (2007). The environment politics. Bangkok: Agricultural Cooperatives Association of Thailand. [in Thai].

Marks, J. (1997). A historical look at green structure: 1984 to 1992. Retrieved from http://www.greens.org/s-r/14/14-03.html

Mentzer, W. R. (1998). Test and evaluation of land-mobile missile systems. Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, 19(4), 421-435. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3AuUuLZ

Minns, J., Bradley, K., & Chagas-Bastos, F. H. (2018). Australia’s refugee policy: Not a model for the world. International Studies, 55(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020881717746797

Muller-Rommel, F. (1994). Green parties under comparative perspective. Vienna: Wien Universität.

Newell, P. (2019). ‘What Is green politics?’ In P. Newell (Ed.), Global green politics (pp. 21–48). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Noppakaew, W. (2018). Political ecology of cultural area management. “rotational farming”: Problems and conflicts between the state authorities and the community. The Academic Journal: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Nakhonsawan Rajabhat University, 5(1), 367–406. [in Thai].

Ocasio-Cortez, A. (2019, February 12). Text-H.Res.109-116th congress (2019-2020): recognizing the duty of the federal government to create a green new deal. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://bit.ly/3tW4lIf

Oltermann, P. (2020, September 7). German greens well placed for share of power despite covid setback. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3tW4tYf

Perry, J. (2021). The politics of economic insecurity in the COVID-19 Era UN DESA. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://bit.ly/3ku6HLo

Pettifor, A. (2020). The case for the green new deal. New York: Verso Books.

Piampongsarn, P. (2013). Political economics, political ecology and eco-socialism. Burapha Journal of Political Economy, 1(1), 217–234. [in Thai].

Pickering, S., & Lambert, C. (2002). Deterrence: Australia’s refugee policy. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 14(1), 65–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/10345329.2002.12036247

Poguntke, T. (1993). Goodbye to movement politics? organisational adaptation of the German green party. Environmental Politics, 2(3), 379–404. https://doi.org/10.1080/09644019308414086

Sharman, C., Sayers, A. M., & Miragliotta, N. (2002). Trading party preferences: The Australian experience of preferential voting. Electoral Studies, 21(4), 543–560. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3794(01)00012-9

Smith, R. J. (1984). Missile deployments shake European politics: The Soviet SS20 and the American pershing ii and cruise missiles have disgruntled The Europeans and awakened their independence. Science, 223(4637), 665–667. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.223.4637.665

Speake, J. (2015). Oxford dictionary of proverbs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Spretnak, C. (1984). Green politics: The spiritual dimension. Retrieved January 16, 2021, from https://bit.ly/2XLo0Pd

Switzer, J. V., & Vaughn, J. (2003). Environmental activism: A reference handbook. California: ABC-CLIO.

Talshir, G. (2002). The political ideology of green parties: From the politics of nature to redefining the nature of politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Thompson, M. (2019). Who owns the environment?: The state of green party politics around the world. Paris: Ipsos Public Affairs.

Tranter, B., & Smith, J. (2019). The mother of all effects? stability and change in greens party identification in Australia. Environmental Politics, 28(7), 1281–1304. https://doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2018.1518068

Unchanam, P. (2020). Animals and rights: Political theories of animal liberation. Journal of Social Sciences, Naresuan University, 16(1), 119–160. https://doi.org/10.14456/jssnu.2020.5. [in Thai].

Voice of America. (2021). Thousands around globe protest COVID-19 shots, lockdowns. Voice of America. Retrieved January 16, 2021, from https://bit.ly/39pWitO

Wall, D. (2010). The no-nonsense guide to green politics. Oxford: New Internationalist.

Wettengel, J. (2019, February 20). RWE agrees to leave hambach forest untouched until 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020, from https://bit.ly/3Aste0E

Wilson, S. (2002). The emergence of the green electorate in Australia. Australian Quarterly, 74(6), 17–22.

Zelko, F., & Brinkmann, C. (2006). Green parties: Reflections on the first three decades. Washington DC: Heinrich Boll Foundation.