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This research critically explores the role of the Independent Observers (IOs) regarding the Integrity Pact (IP) approach. The objectives are fourfold: 1) to examine arrangements of the IP approach prescribed in the Public Procurement and Supplies Administration Act 2017 and the Notifications of the Anti-Corruption Cooperation (ACC) Committee; 2) to investigate the duties of the IOs in the procurement system; 3) to identify the contribution of the IP approach to
prevention of corruption in public procurement; and 4) to identify issues and challenges the IOs face while discharging their duties. Based on qualitative methods with in-depth interviews of 50 samples, the findings of this research demonstrate that the IP approach and the role of the IOs prove an effective means for anti-corruption in public procurement; in addition, the role of the IOs also promotes social accountability enhancing citizen engagement in exacting public accountability. However, the findings also highlight attempts of political interference, a lack of IOs’ involvement during the drafting of the Terms of Reference (TOR), and misconceptions of public officials on the role of the IOs as fundamental issues.
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