THE STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING OF THAI TOURISTS' LOYALTY TO NORTHEASTERN THAILAND
โมเดลสมการโครงสร้างความจงรักภักดีของนักท่องเที่ยวชาวไทยที่มีต่อจุดหมายปลายทาง ในการท่องเที่ยวภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือ ประเทศไทย
The research purpose is to develop a structural equation modeling of Thai tourists' loyalty to Northeastern Thailand. There are five factors which are used to support this research: Motivation travel, Destination image, Perceived value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty. The population of this research is Thai travelers who have their destination in Northeastern Thailand. Structural Equation Modeling was used to define the sample of 432 tourists. In addition, the research sampling was indicated the 60 tourist attractions; 3 places in 20 provinces and distributed to travelers who visited those areas. In order to analyze quantitative research (a reliability of 0.97) and the statistics of skewness, kurtosis, multicollinearity, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are revealed. The result shows that a satisfaction is affected by destination image and perceived value. In addition, this relevant to empirical data (Chi-square=333.69, df=124, p=0.06, GFI=0.91, AGFI=0.88, CFI=0.96, TLI=0.95, RMSEA=0.06, RMR=0.01, PATRIO=0.81). To summarize, the five factors are affected to 14% of Thai tourists' loyalty. Royalty is an indicator of attention and interest in returning to the services, this may lead to the willingness of tourist’s revisiting and spending money at the tourist attractions in the future as well as an introducing to the others from the one who got into the services.
Banki, B. M., Ismail, H. N., Dalil, M., & Kawu, A. (2014). Moderating role of affective destination image on the relationship between tourists satisfaction and behavioral Intention: Evidence from Obudu mountain resort. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(4), 47-60.
Battor, M. M., Battor, M. M., & Ismail, M. (2012). The Mediating Role of Tourist Satisfaction: A Study of Muslim Tourists in Malaysia. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29, 279-297.
Bolton, R. N., & Drew, J. H. (1991). A Multistage Model of Customers’ Assessments of Service Quality and Value. Journal of Consumer Research, 17, 375-384.
Buasri, A. & Sirikuta, S. (2015). Factors Influencing Satisfaction and Loyalty of Tourists Towards Kanchanaburi. Srinakharinwirot Business Journal, 6(1), 114-123. (In Thai)
Chaoprasert, C. (2005). Service Marketing (9th ed). Bangkok : se-education. (In Thai)
Charoenkittayawut, S. (2015). A Structural Equation Model of Destination Loyalty among European Tourists Visiting Phuket Provinece, Thailand. Thesis, Master of Business Administration degree in Business Administration, Prince of Songkla University, Songkla. (In Thai)
Chen, C.-F., & Tsai, D.(2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions. Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115-1122.
Chen, C. F., & Chen, F. S. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31(1), 29-35.
Chi, C. G. & Gursoy, D. (2009). Employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction and financial performance: an empirical examination. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 245-253.
Chiu, W., & Zeng, S. (2016). Determinants of Chinese tourists’ loyalty to Korea: A comparison of film and non-film tourist perceptions. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6(9), 667-671.
Dickman, S. (1996). Tourism: An Introductory Text (2nd ed.). Australia: Hodder Education.
Forgas-Coll, S., Palau-Saumell, R., Sánchez-García, J., & Callarisa-Fiol, L. J. (2012). Urban Destination Loyalty Drivers and Cross-National Moderator Effects: The Case of Barcelona. Journal Tourism Management, 33(6), 1309-1320.
Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed). New Jersey : Pearson Prentice-Hall International.
Hallmann, K. & Breuer, B. Z. (2010). The Impact of Image Congruence between Sport Event and Destination on Behavioral Intention. Tourism Review, 65(1), 66-74.
Hellier, P. K, Geursen, G. M., Carr, R. A., & Rickard, J. A. (2003). Customer repurchase intention: A general structural equation model. European Journal of Marketing, 37(11-12), 1762-1800.
Janita, M. S., & Miranda F. J. (2013). EXPLORING SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS IN B2B e-MARKETPLACES. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 14(4), 363-386.
SO, K. K. F., King, C., Sparks, B. A., & Wang, Y. (2013). The influence of customer brand identification on hotel brand evaluation and loyalty development. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 31-41.
Khoung, M. N., & Ha, H. T. T. (2014). The Influences of Push and Pull Factors on the International Leisure Tourists, Return Intention to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam-A Mediation Analysis of Destination Satisfaction. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 5(6), 490-496.
Kim, N. & Chalip, L. (2004). Why travel to FIFA world cup Effects of motives, background, interest, and constraints. Tourism Management, 25(6), 695-707.
Kingthong, W. (2015). Structural Equation Model of Factors Affecting Thai Tourist Loyalty towarda Marine Nationgl Parks in Southern Thailand. Silpakorn University Journal, 35(2), 1-18. (In Thai)
Korda, A. P., & Snoj, B. (2010). Development, Validity and Reliability of Perceived Service Quality in Retail Banking and its Relationship with Perceived Value and Customer Satisfaction. Managing Global Transitions: International Research Journal, 8(2), 187-205.
Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. C. (2009). Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (4th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey : Pearson Prentice Hall.
Lee, T. H., & Hsu, F. Y. (2013). Examining How Attending Motivation and Satisfaction Affects the loyalty for Attendees at Aboriginal Festivals. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(1), 18-34.
Loureiro, S. M. C., & Gonzalez, F. J. M. (2008). The Importance of Quality, Satisfaction, Trust, and Image in Relation to Rural Tourist Loyalty. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 25(2), 117-136.
Ministry of Tourism and Sports. (2017). Domestic tourist statistics 2016 (Northeast region). Retrieved March 2, 2018, from http://www.mots.go.th/more_news.php?cid=438&filename =index (In Thai)
_______. (2019, December 28-29). Tourism collapsed to Hi-Season 2020. Prachachat Newspaper, 1. (In Thai)
Nadeau, J. (2008). Destination in a Country Image Context. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(1), 84-106.
Ngoc, K. N., & Trinh, N. T. (2015). Factors Affecting Tourists’ Return Intention towards Vung Tau City, Vietnam: A Mediation Analysis of Destination Satisfaction. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 3(4), 292-298.
Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer (2nd ed). New York : McGraw-Hill.
Parasuraman, A., Berry, Leonard L., & Zeithaml, Valarie A. (1988). SERVQUAL: A Multi-item Scale Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 14-40.
Pike, S. & Ryan, C. (2004). Destination Positioning Analysis through a Comparison of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42(4), 1-36.
Pizam A., & Mansfield, Y. (Eds). (1999). Consumer behavior in travel and tourism. New York : Haworth.
Reidenbach, R. E., & McClung, G. W. (1999). Managing Stakeholder Loyalty: When Satisfaction is Just Not Enough. Marketing Health Service, 19(1), 21-29.
Robinson, S. & Etherington, L. (2006). Customer Loyalty: A Guide for Time Travelers. New York : Palgrave Macmillan.
Rovinelli, R. J., & Hambleton R. K. (1977). On the use of content specialists in the assessment of criterion referenced test item validity. Dutch Journal of Educational Research, 2, 49-60.
Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2019). Direction of Thai tourism in the year 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019, from https://www.tatreviewmagazine.com/article/tourism-thailand-2562/ (In Thai)
Vanichbuncha, K. (2014). Statistical analysis: statistics for administration and research (10th ed.). Bangkok : Pimlak. (In Thai)
Wang, X., Zhang, J., Gu, C., & Zhen, F. (2009). Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Tourist Satisfaction: A Structural Modeling Approach. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 14(3), 397-406.
Weblog for Rajamangala Thanyaburi Knowledge Management. (2019). Online travel business. Retrieved December 17, 2019, from http://www.blog.rmutt.ac.th/?p=76KM Blog@RMUTT. (In Thai)
Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism Management, 26, 45-56.
Copyright (c) 2020 NRRU Community Research Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.