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The purposes of this research were to study the development of Northeastern long drums and to develop sound quality of Isan long drums by using qualitative research process. The data collection drew mainly on various media and interviews. The data were then analyzed to create Isan long drums. Tests were conducted to conclude the development of sound quality of Isan long drums. Regarding the development of the sound quality of Isan long drums, the findings showed that, originally, Isan long drums were created by people living in the community. They were used as musical instruments in ceremonial activities of people in the village by using materials, equipment, or tools which could be found locally. Later, there were employments of long-drum bands. This started the era of business of the employment. Then, the rhythm was developed. The beating style was from a mix of musical instruments. Later, when there was a realization of preserving, maintaining, and developing playing the Northeastern long drums, there were various competing stages with systematic rules or criteria which developed both playing and showing. The competing stages became a network and an area for people who were interested in Isan long drums so that they could meet and exchange ideas in order to improve the sound quality of Isan long drums. The researcher has developed the materials and equipment used in producing Isan long drums so that they would be consistent with the current social context, such as aesthetics, modernity, convenience, light weight, and endurance. From the test of Isan long drums which were made of 3 types of wood, including Burma padauk, Jackfruit wood, and Raintree wood, the produced Northeastern long drums had clear and resonating sound according to the ideology of improved Isan long drums. This was because the inside surface of the holes was wavy, or the grooves inside the holes created more resonating sound than smooth surface inside the holes. Moreover, the sound signal wave appearing from the test was wider and longer than the original Isan long drums which had clear and resonating sound, but the sound signal wave was not wide, and the sound signal wave was short and faded away quickly.
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