Folk Beliefs and Worship of Chao Pho Hanuman in Thai Society คติความเชื่อและพิธีกรรมการนับถือ "เจ้าพ่อหนุมาน" ในสังคมไทย

Main Article Content

Rattanaphon Chuenka
Panupong Udomsilp
Sukanya Sujachaya


This research paper aims to examine “Hanuman cult” in Thai society from documents gathered from field studies during 2019-2021, which have been analyzed and interpreted by folklore methodologies. The research brings about this following revelation: there are eight Hanuman shrines today, namely, 1) Chao Pho Kamhaeng Hanuman Shrine in Taling Chan District, Bangkok 2) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine in Chomthong District, Bangkok 3) Luang Pho Hanuman Shrine, Samut Songkhram Province 4) Somdet Phra-ong Than Hanuman Shrine, Kanchanaburi Province 5) Chao Hanuman Shrine, Phetchaburi Province 6) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine, Prachuap Khirikhan Province 7) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine (Hanuman’s swamp), Prachinburi Province and 8) Chao Pho Hanuman Shrine (Hanuman’s tributary), Prachinburi Province. All reflect that Hanuman cult has been originally derived from Ramakien, Siamese-versioned Ramayana, then this divine monkey is worshipped as a sacred spirit amongst the Central Thai as well as can be categorized into six aspects – 1) Hanuman (along with natural monkeys) as a guardian spirit 2) Hanuman Placenames 3) sacred floating sculpture of Hanuman 4) sculpture of Hanuman 5) Hanuman’s spirit mediums and 6) the belief of Phra Ram and Phra Lak’s monkey soldier. Hanuman cult, herein, can be assumingly traced back to “guarding spirit worship” based on indigenous belief, Buddhism, Hinduism and Chinese belief.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บทความวิจัย (Research Article)


Amornwanitsak, S. (2016). Chaopho Khaotok: The Thai Guardian Angel that Became a Chinese God. International Journal of East Asian Studies, 20(2), 1-21.

Jeennoon, P. (2004). An Analysis of Hunuman in Various Versions of The Ramakien (Master’s Thesis). Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom.

Jirapas, J. (2004). Heng Chia: From Literature to Monkey God. Bangkok: Matichon.

Kabin Sub-district Municipality. (2007). 50 years of Kabin Sub-district Municipality. Prachinburi: Ban Punam.

Nathalang, S. (2012). Village and City Guardian Spirits Persistence of Belief and Ritual Concerning Guardian Spirits in Current Thai-Tai Societies. Journal of Thai Studies, 8(1), 41-68.

Nimmanahaeminda, P. (2003). The Story of Rama in Tai Societies. Ramayana Symposium. Conference Report of the Story of Rama, Ramayana, Ramakien at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.

Onura, N. (2019, December 25). Interviewed by Rattanaphon Chuenka [tape recording]. Yisan District, Samut Songkhram.

Puriwanchana, S. (2005). The Characteristics of Mythical Legend of Riverine and Coastal Areas in Central Thailand (Master’s Thesis). Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.

Sathienkoses. (1952). The Instrument of Ramakien. Bangkok: Fine Arts Department.

Songsiri, W. (2001). The Myth and Ritual of Khun Phu Sriracha: Reflection on The Socio-Cultural Integration in Yisan Village (Master’s Thesis). Silpakorn University, Bangkok.

Thaihom, M. (2020, March 21). Interviewed by Rattanaphon Chuenka [tape recording]. Taling Chan District, Bangkok.

The First Infantry Battalion, Infantry Center. (2014). Commemorative of The Founding of The First Infantry Battalion, Infantry Center. Prachuap Khirikhan: The First Infantry Battalion, Infantry Center.

Wisessaeng, J. (2020, December 19). Interviewed by Rattanaphon Chuenka [tape recording]. Chomthong District, Bangkok.

Wolcott, Leonard T. (1978). Hanuman: The Power-Dispensing Monkey in North Indian Folk Religion. Journal of Asian Studies, 37(4), 653-661.