China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Japan’s Free and Open Indo- Pacific: Their Impacts on The Official Development Assistance

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Sunida Aroonpipat

Abstract

The strategic competition between “the Belt and Road Initiative” of China and “the Free and Open Indo-Pacific” of Japan sheds the lights on the role of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) as one of the core driving mechanisms. Despite that, the existing literatures merely offer the study of the changing of such strategies impacting on broad ODA principles. With this regard, the ODA implementation with the comparison of ODA characteristics between China and Japan have not been sufficiently covered.This study aims at fulfilling the literature gap by illustrating the difference between China’s BRI and Japan’s FOIP affecting on the difference of ODA characteristics. Although BRI has caused the explicit changes on ODA principles and institutional settings, the ODA implementation has not been realized such change. In contrast, FOIP of Japan has not produced any significant change on ODA principles, institutional settings and implementation. With such various degree of changes, the ODA characteristics of China and Japan remain different in terms of the interests of donor-recipient countries and the efficiency-effectiveness.

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