Foreign Language Loan Words in Royal Institute Dictionary: A Study of Word Forms and Semantic Categories คำยืมภาษาต่างประเทศในพจนานุกรม ฉบับราชบัณฑิตยสถาน: การศึกษารูปแบบคำและการจำแนกประเภทความหมาย

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Suchada Jiaphong


The objective of this study was to analyze the forms of loan words and semantic categories in the Royal Institute Thai dictionary of the edition 2011. This study only studied loan words in foreign languages ​​that the dictionary abbreviated (i.e., 15 languages which were Khmer, Chinese, Javanese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Mon, Bengali, Persian, Portuguese, French, Malay, Latin, English, Arabic and Hindi). This study found that there were a total of 1,710 loan words. The English loan words were highest (883 words or 51.64%). It was followed by Khmer loan words (430 words or 25.15%), and Chinese loan words (142 words or 8.30%). The number of Latin and Vietnamese loan words was lowest (2 words per language or 0.11 %). Foreign language loan words in Thai language were found in 8 forms, consisting of 1-syllable words, 2-syllable words, 3-syllable words, 4-syllable words, 5-syllable words, 6-syllable words, 7-syllable words, and 8-syllable words. The most common word form was 2-syllable words (795 words or 46.49%), followed by 3-syllable words (377 words or 22.04 %), and 1-syllable words (308 words or 18.01%). 8-syllable words were found the least (3 words or 0.18%). As for the semantic categories, it can be grouped into 17 groups. It was found that the meanings of most loan words were related to education, science, and technology, (447 words or 26.14%), followed by the meanings about nature and environment (195 words or 11.40%) and meaning about act (184 words or 10.76%). The meaning about vehicles was lowest (17 words or 0.99%). The results of this research will be beneficial to linguists who are interested in studying patterns of borrowed words and meaning groups of foreign language borrowings in the Thai language and will assist them to understand the characteristics of foreign language loan words. It is also a way to study society and culture from borrowed words.


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