กฎหมายเกี่ยวกับองค์กรบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์เพลงในไทย…ถึงเวลาทบทวน?

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รองศาสตราจารย์จิตรา เพียรล้ำเลิศ
ภัควดี เพียรล้ำเลิศ

บทคัดย่อ

            กฎหมายลิขสิทธิ์ ได้กำหนดสิทธิแต่เพียงผู้เดียวแก่เจ้าของลิขสิทธิ์เท่านั้น ที่สามารถกีดกันหรืออนุญาตให้ผู้อื่นใช้งานอันมีลิขสิทธิ์ของตนได้ แต่ในปัจจุบันเนื่องจากเทคโนโลยีมีความทันสมัยมากขึ้น ทำให้คนทั่วไปสามารถเข้าถึงงานอันมีลิขสิทธิ์ได้ง่ายมากยิ่งขึ้นเช่นกัน จึงเป็นเหตุให้เจ้าของลิขสิทธิ์มีความยากลำบากตลอดจนเป็นปัญหาในการจัดการสิทธิของตนในงานอันมีลิขสิทธิ์ได้อย่างครอบคลุมในทุกราย ดังนั้น การบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์จึงถือเป็นการแก้ไขปัญหาดังกล่าวได้อย่างตรงจุด การจัดตั้งองค์กรบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์มีความสำคัญเพราะองค์กรเหล่านี้สามารถบริหารจัดการสิทธิในงานอันมีลิขสิทธิ์ของเจ้าของลิขสิทธิ์ ซึ่งเข้ามาเป็นสมาชิกองค์กรได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ ซึ่งมีกรณีตัวอย่างที่ปรากฏชัดในวงการดนตรี องค์กรบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์เพลงกำเนิดขึ้นเป็นจำนวนมากทั่วโลก รวมไปถึงในประเทศไทย แต่อย่างไรก็ดี พ.ร.บ. ลิขสิทธิ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๓๗ ของประเทศไทยมิได้มีบทบัญญัติที่เกี่ยวข้องกับองค์กรบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์แต่อย่างใด


            การศึกษาวิจัยครั้งนี้ มีวัตถุประสงค์มุ่งเน้นที่จะศึกษาความสำคัญ หน้าที่ และประเภทของการบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์ เปรียบเทียบกฎหมายและกฎระเบียบเกี่ยวกับองค์กรบริหารจัดการค่าลิขสิทธิ์เพลงของประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกา ประเทศจีนกับประเทศไทย หลังจากการศึกษาวิจัยอย่างละเอียดพบว่ามีประเด็นทางกฎหมายที่น่าสนใจเกี่ยวกับองค์กรบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์เพลงในประเทศไทยอยู่หลายประเด็น อีกทั้งผู้เขียนได้นำเสนอข้อเสนอแนะที่คาดหวังว่าจะเป็นประโยชน์ทั้งต่อการพัฒนาต่อยอดกฎหมายเกี่ยวกับองค์การบริหารจัดเก็บค่าลิขสิทธิ์และการศึกษาต่อยอดจากการศึกษาวิจัยครั้งนี้ต่อไป

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